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This timely and original research review provides a comprehensive review of the role and activities of the International Court of Justice (the ‘World Court’) and its role in the important issues of international law. Covering the courts activities, procedure and contribution to the progressive development of international law as well as legal disputes and advisory opinions, this original piece proves an important and broad resource for scholars and students alike.

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Environmental crime is arguably the most vital and destructive crime of the 21st century, especially in the light of climate change and shifts in social, economic and ecological circumstances that will accompany global warming. The author takes an excitingly broad and refreshing approach to environmental crime and investigates a variety of topics including illegal fishing, poaching, wildlife crimes, animal abuse, climate change and ecocide as well as crimes related to waste, energy and contamination.

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The editor takes an excitingly broad and refreshing approach to environmental justice, tracing the subject from its early developments to its contemporary need for a new non-anthropocentric ontology responsive to questions of human-non-human justice. This invaluable study includes 24 of the best available research articles in the field and offers a stimulating journey into the rich ambiguities, tensions and promise of environmental justice for the 21st century and beyond.

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There has been an exponential growth in international environmental treaty-making over the past fifty years, to the point of ‘treaty congestion’ – with a total of more than 1,300 multilateral (global and regional) agreements on the topic and close to 3,000 bilateral ones currently in force. This research review addresses this phenomenon from a variety of disciplinary perspectives: international law, political science, and ‘ecological economics’. The objective is comparative analysis, with a view to identifying common features and common problems of transnational environmental regimes, in light of their historical evolution, their application and effectiveness in practice, and possible lessons learned in their institutional ‘interplay’ with each other.

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This timely literature review analyses the most influential legal scholarship on the enforcement of human rights at institutional level, both regional and international. It includes discussion of charter-based and reporting monitoring procedures as well as the role of high commissioners and treaty bodies. The review later focuses on the movement towards establishing quasi-judicial procedures, the judicial enforcement of human rights and interim measures, concluding with a thoughtful consideration of the potential for universal judicial enforcement – a world court of human rights. This insightful study will be an essential research resource for those studying, working or teaching in this important field.

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A growing literature in economics has studied how fairness considerations shape human behavior. This review analyses the key theoretical and empirical contributions spanning the last four decades, along with influential related work in normative economics. It argues that the fairness motive is essential for understanding human behavior in a wide range of settings, such as markets, bargaining, and redistributive situations. It moves on to a discussion of the large heterogeneity in what people view as fair and the importance people attach to fairness, displaying how a concern for fairness develops in childhood and manifests itself in the brain. This research review will be a valuable tool for those interested in the fascinating field of the economics of fairness.

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Global governance emerged as a concept more than two decades ago. Despite its relevance to key processes underlying the major public policy questions of our age, the contours of 'global governance' remain contested and elusive. This Research Review seeks to clarify key trends and challenges in global governance by bringing together the leading scholarship on its different forms. The Literature Review Article discusses key issues in relation to global governance institutions: democracy, legitimacy, accountability, fragmentation, effectiveness and dispute settlement.

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The interdisciplinary field of economics and religion has come a long way since 2003 when Edward Elgar published the pioneering volume Economics and Religion. The influence of religious ideas on the birth of economics as a discipline and its rise to cultural dominance is now widely recognized. The largely Protestant discussion has been enriched by Roman Catholic contributions stimulated by recent Papal Encyclicals. The economics of religion has now matured into a respectable subfield of economics and articles on religion regularly appear in top economics journals. This original and insightful research review places the most recent contributions in context and will be an invaluable resource for scholars and academics alike.

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There could hardly be a more appropriate time in world history to be revisiting the issues of globalisation and democracy. After almost two centuries of what might be regarded as globalisation in the current usage of the term, it has fallen into disrepute. Voters have used the ballot box to reject both the concept of globalisation and the mainstream parties that promoted it. The UK voted to leave the EU, in the 2016 ‘Brexit’ referendum, and the US elected Donald Trump as President. This Research Review brings together the key writings on globalisation and democracy exploring the progression of globalisation as well as themes such as employment, international trade, technology and the environment amongst other important issues. This Research Review provides both scholarly and lay readers an opportunity to analyse how globalisation has impacted the world we live in today.

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This research review discusses traditional and contemporary works by leading scholars in international humanitarian law. It investigates the major themes of the field including the development of international humanitarian law, human rights law, international criminal law, gender-related violence in armed conflict, the changing nature of occupation and cyber war.

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Research Reviews