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Mikael Klintman and Magnus Boström

This chapter gives an overview of the roles ordinary people, here called citizen-consumers, could play in relation to climate governance. Four roles are identified: (1) empowered citizen-consumers motivated by information about climate threats associated with their daily practices, (2) citizen-consumers acting within given structures set up to facilitate reductions of climate-gas emissions, (3) empowered citizen-consumers acting primarily on other motivations than climate concern and (4) citizen-consumers acting within given structures not set up primarily to facilitate climate-gas reductions, although such reductions may still take place. The four roles do not constitute a ranking list from insufficient to sufficient roles. None of these roles are perfect or ideal in climate governance, but will need to be combined. To be sure, this chapter argues that changing social policies and structure is likely to be more climate efficient than is changing individual attitudes. A more important point is that climate governance could be more powerful by looking beyond people’s climate intention and beyond structural changes specifically designed to reduce climate harm. By examining how people’s climate motivation may meet other motivations, scholars and practitioners of climate governance have a vast field of unexplored territory to examine and develop into novel types of governance.

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Vladimir Janković

This chapter explores past and contemporary practices developed to reduce climatic stress in urban areas. The concept of urban climate design captures a set of measures advanced to mitigate adverse atmospheric effects of growth, morphology and socio-economic metabolism in urban areas. Such measures have traditionally relied on empirically-intensive studies of urban micro-meteorologies and sometimes deployed to tackle problems that stemmed from local, highly specific characteristics of cities’ form and function, such as air pollution or urban heat island. It is argued that such organic, targeted approached deserve more recognition in current strategies to address cities’ climatic futures, most of which gloss over the realistic possibilities and local differences and promote top-down, generic fixes that have little basis in local context. Using results from a project fieldwork, the chapter looks at the potential benefits of urban climate governance based on the existing micro-meteorological traditions that may be act as helpful correctives in conventional thinking about cities in climate change.

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François Gipouloux and Li Shantong

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Dana R. Fisher and Anya M. Galli

How does civil society engage in climate governance and how do we understand the range of forms and tactics? This chapter presents a history of civil society involvement in climate change policymaking, discussing the diversity of actors involved and the insider and outsider tactics that they take. First, we provide a summary of the literature on civil society participation in climate governance, paying particular attention to the diversity of actors and actions. Second, building off of recent events that involve both insider and outsider tactics, we review the role that civil society has played as outsiders during international climate negotiations. Third and finally, we conclude by discussing the likely role that civil society will play as the climate regime continues to try to reduce greenhouse gas emissions around the world.

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Radoslav S. Dimitrov

What is the impact of international diplomacy on climate governance? Climate change negotiations have become proverbial for their repeated failure to produce a strong policy agreement. The chapter assesses climate diplomacy from an insider’s perspective and provides an update on political dynamics and recent outcomes. It argues that UNFCCC negotiations have already succeeded in facilitating policy change without formal agreements. Global discussions have affected state behavior and fostered the development of domestic policies even in the absence of a formal treaty. Persuasion and arguments about the economics of climate policy have led to the reconsideration of national interests. The importance of diplomacy is in spreading ideas that alter cost–benefit calculations about climate policy. The conversations during negotiations help explain the proliferation of climate-friendly policies that signal a global ‘Green Shift,’ an economic transition to low-carbon development. Scholars of diplomacy need to recognize the diverse impacts of negotiations on state behavior, apart from treaty-making.

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Anders Hansson, Steve Rayner and Victoria Wibeck

Climate engineering, or geoengineering, is receiving growing attention from both scientists and policymakers concerned with the slow progress of international negotiations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, scientists and climate activists seem sharply divided over the wisdom and practicality of climate engineering. The concept of climate engineering includes a wide range of different proposals for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or to reflect the sun’s light and heat back into space. These proposals differ widely with regards to technical feasibility and effectiveness, environmental risks, cost estimates, moral implications and governance challenges. However, all of the options face major challenges, not only concerning lack of understanding or inability to control the negative side-effects but also most ethical and governance issues are still unresolved. This chapter outlines and discusses governance challenges for climate engineering, and proposes some high-level principles for the governance of the field of climate engineering. Further, the chapter outlines recurrent ways in which climate engineering has been framed in public and scientific discourse and discusses how such framings may influence on the future of climate engineering. The chapter ends in a discussion about in which direction climate engineering would take future climate politics and governance.

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Karin Bäckstrand and Eva Lövbrand

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Charles F. Parker and Christer Karlsson

After the ambiguous outcome of the 2009 climate summit in Copenhagen, the countries of the world, under the auspices of the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, are now negotiating to reach a new international climate agreement by the 2015 summit in Paris. The EU, China, and the US are the most influential actors in this process. Utilizing a leadership perspective, this contribution focuses on the interplay of leadership forms, leadership visions, and leadership recognition with regards to the three greenhouse gas giants vying to mobilize support and shape the evolving global climate regime. The chapter analyses recent outcomes and developments in the UNFCCC negotiating process and considers the prospects for a new climate agreement that would be applicable to all parties and enter into force by 2020.

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Simon Matti

A great number of policy instruments have been developed or proposed within the environmental sector, with the ambition to mitigate climate change by changing social choice mechanisms and thus initiating collective action in this regard. The effectiveness and efficiency of a policy instrument directed towards individual behaviors is, however, partially determined by the level of general public support the chosen instrument enjoys. On an aggregated level, public policy support determines policy choice and can thus explain the eligibility of specific instruments in specific contexts. On an individual level, policy support can help account for compliance and long-term stability of the policy. This chapter discusses the mechanisms behind public support for climate policy instruments and proposes a model of individual policy attitudes that account for and combines three broad elements that have been particularly emphasized throughout previous research: (1) moral-normative factors such values, beliefs and personal norms driving general environmental attitudes and behavior; (2) beliefs about the attributes of a specific policy instrument; and (3) interpersonal and institutional trust.

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Harro van Asselt, Tim Rayner and Åsa Persson

In the 1990s environmental policy integration (EPI) became a popular approach to bring about preventive environmental action in key polluting and resource-using sectors. Following the rise of climate change on the political agenda, a similar imperative of climate policy integration (CPI) has emerged. In this chapter, we discuss questions raised by CPI, with some practical examples from EU policymaking. Specifically, we examine whether and how three challenges that have emerged in the context of EPI—the incentive structures of integration; prioritization of objectives; and safeguarding democratic accountability—also hold for CPI. We show that sufficient resources need to accompany CPI, but that the promise of such resources may also lead to ‘re-labeling’ ongoing activities as climate-relevant. We further underline the importance of disaggregating questions of CPI, taking into account the particularities of mitigation and adaptation, as well as those of the different policy sectors with which integration is sought. Finally, we highlight that ensuring the democratic accountability of CPI is particularly challenging in the EU context, where policymakers at one level can defer difficult political tradeoffs between policy goals to other levels of governance.