Tests for “effective” compliance programs take the form of lists specifying required elements in varying level of detail. From an economic perspective, an effective compliance program can be defined more fundamentally as the set of policies and procedures that a rational, profit-maximizing firm would establish if it faced an expected sanction equal to the social cost of violations. This chapter explores the idea and several of its extensions and qualifications.
Brandon L. Garrett
This chapter focuses on the role of individual prosecutions in corporate actions. In only about one-third of those federal deferred or non-prosecution agreements with organizations, including some of the highest profile corporate criminal cases of recent years, were any officers or employees prosecuted. What explains this pattern? This chapter proceeds as follows. Section 2 describes the HSBC case, introducing practical and procedural obstacles that arise in cases involving both organizations and employees. Section 3 describes data on individual prosecutions in corporate cases. It further explores why prosecutors so frequently do not or cannot prosecute individuals in corporate cases, why they so often achieve limited success when they do. The chapter concludes by describing alternative means to deter individual behavior and what significance this has for the approach to corporate prosecutions more generally.
Kevin E. Davis
Economic analyses of law enforcement generally focus on situations in which law is enforced by a single public agency, in a single jurisdiction, which faithfully follows its announced enforcement strategy. This does not reflect the reality of enforcement aimed at corporate crime, which commonly involves multiple agencies, often based in different jurisdictions, and which adjust their enforcement strategy in response to prior misconduct. This chapter will discuss the analysis of multijurisdictional law enforcement, with particular reference to cases concerning foreign bribery. The premise is that this kind of interaction can be modelled as a dynamic multi-player game in which the players include both enforcement agencies and firms. In principle, this kind of analysis can be used to formulate testable hypotheses about outcomes of interactions between regulators and firms. Unfortunately, opportunities to evaluate these kinds of hypotheses empirically are limited because many aspects of the structure of the game are difficult to observe, and firms’ misconduct and regulators’ enforcement activities typically are only observable when they result in formal sanctions. The chapter concludes with a discussion of some of the challenges inherent in normative analysis of the outcomes of multi-jurisdictional law enforcement games.
Tom R. Tyler
This chapter reviews the effectiveness of deterrence, in and of itself as well as relative to the influence of consensual models of regulation that rely upon legitimacy to motivate compliance. The law governing corporate criminal enforcement, and the law and economics scholarship designed to inform it, treats deterrence as the primary goal and coercion through threatened sanctions as the most effective tool to achieve this goal. Yet the available evidence on the causes of misconduct suggests that although people do respond to threatened sanctions, the influence of coercion is often overstated relative to its actual influence upon law-related behavior. In addition consensual approaches have been found to be more effective than is commonly supposed. Taken together these findings suggest the desirability of developing a broader approach to corporate regulation using both coercive and consensual models of regulation. Given the strength of the findings for consensual models, the persistence of coercive models as the dominant and even exclusive approach to corporate crime is striking. That dominance suggests the importance of focusing on the psychological attractions of coercion to people in positions of authority. It is suggested that those in authority are attracted to this approach not only because of evidence that it can be effective but also due to the psychological benefits it affords them.
Edited by Jennifer Arlen
Stephen J. Choi and A.C. Pritchard
This chapter reviews the existing empirical literature relating to government enforcement of the securities laws, particularly by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including comparative work, assessment of the impact of enforcement, and analysis of enforcement patterns. It also identifies particularly promising areas for future research. Little work has been done to date exploring the incentives faced by attorneys who conduct investigations on behalf of the SEC and how those incentives shape enforcement decisions. This chapter offers preliminary evidence on the career paths of SEC lawyers and how those career choices might influence the enforcement actions brought by the SEC.
Miriam H. Baer
The internal corporate investigation is now an integral component of corporate compliance. Corporations invest considerable resources in identifying and explaining wrongdoing. Government prosecutors and regulators, in turn, rely upon and strongly encourage these information-generating activities. This chapter argues that the corporate investigation’s greatest challenges stem from familiar problems of individual and entity-level efforts to evade detection. As employees take steps to conceal their misbehavior, corporate actors must navigate a difficult relationship between government enforcers on the one hand and corporate employees on the other. Mediating these relationships would be difficult enough under any circumstance, but a vexatious deficiency of trust between corporate actors and government enforcers causes corporate actors to cling ever more intently to legal doctrines such as the corporate attorney-client privilege, while simultaneously conducting more intensive, intrusive and expensive investigations. The chapter concludes by noting two developments: the Department of Justice’s latest attempt to secure cooperation from corporate defendants in identifying culpable employees (the so-called “Yates Memo”), and the increasing emphasis on workplace privacy. These two developments will place even greater pressure on the corporate investigator as she attempts to reassure the corporation’s employees and regulators that each side can in fact trust the corporation to investigate itself thoroughly yet fairly.
Marieke Bos, Susan Payne Carter and Paige Marta Skiba
An emerging literature explores how people choose between and use forms of consumer credit. In their chapter, Bos, Carter, and Skiba reflect on the existing literature that analyzes the choice between traditional forms of credit and non-traditional forms of credit such as pawnshop loans and payday loans. The authors add to this literature by introducing new data on observed choices of customers switching to pawnshop loans when payday loans are not available. They bring together these facts to discuss the behavioral economics of choice across these credit markets. They outline the relevant behavioral economics theory, which they hope will inform regulators’ choices in governing alterative credit markets.
Barbara Luppi and Francesco Parisi
Luppi and Parisi illustrate how different behavioral problems can be incorporated into the standard economic model of tort law. Through this exercise, the authors develop a modeling language that can be utilized by law and economic scholars when considering the effect of behavioral biases and cognitive imperfections in tort law. They use these models in conjunction with the standard taxonomy of psychological biases to show the effect of different biases on the behavior of tort agents. The models they present are applicable to a wide range of tort problems, and have the potential for application to a broader range of legal problems.