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Edited by Charles H. Matthews and Eric W. Liguori
Bastian Thomsen, Olav Muurlink and Talitha Best
Enactus is a nonprofit organization dedicated to inspiring students to tackle global issues through socially oriented entrepreneurial action. It is a substantial movement (including 72,000 students in 36 countries in 2017) that takes action learning (Reason and Bradbury, 2001), service learning (Battistoni, 2017) and experiential learning (Kolb, 2014) into the (social) entrepreneurship arena. Students execute community development projects and then compete against other university teams in project-based competitions regionally, nationally, and globally. At its core, Enactus embodies the idea that ‘now’ is the prime opportunity to engage in social entrepreneurship, and its potential benefits can positively impact student and societal beneficiaries simultaneously. Enactus is characterized by relatively short bursts of focused activity and has at this point, attracted limited research attention. In this chapter we reflect on the scholarly basis of the connection component of Enactus, focusing on the value of networking in fostering social entrepreneurship. We present a simple but powerful case where we led 12 students on an international educational trip to Ireland for two weeks, meeting with three other university Enactus teams and presenting at an entrepreneurship education research conference. The case illustrates the rapid benefits of relatively brief ‘real world’ (social) entrepreneurship programs, and the value of leveraging partner Enactus organizations to experience another culture’s view of social entrepreneurship education in action. Prior to two years ago, students at the College of Idaho (U.S.A.) had limited exposure to social entrepreneurship in any capacity. To increase enrollment and student engagement in social entrepreneurship at the College of Idaho we created a Social Entrepreneurship Education Program (SEEP). SEEP includes a new social entrepreneurship concentration for business majors, a suite of six SE courses, local service-learning projects, an international education trip, and a recognized Enactus student chapter on campus. Implementation of SEEP resulted in Enactus membership increasing from 4 students the previous year to more than 26 actively engaged members. Enactus serves as the prime platform at the C of I to engage students outside of the classroom resulting in stronger student–faculty relationships, and greater interest in the SEEP overall.
Eric W. Liguori, Giles T. Hertz and Nelson Sebra
In 2013, two of the authors attended the International Franchise Association’s Franchise Expo held in Anaheim, California. The expo brings together over 200 franchisors, each vying to both build brand awareness and expand their reach via acquisition of new franchisees. We walked the showroom floor, spoke with many of the franchisors, and tried to resist arguing with the lucky few who proudly claimed they had no competition. Our motive in attending this expo was simple: franchising is an often-overlooked opportunity for students to engage in entrepreneurship and we wanted to gather franchise opportunity information to share with our students. We walked away with the information we sought, content we had gathered enough data to inform a few lectures and give students some collateral to consider. As we made the five-hour drive home we reflected back on what we had observed. We had seen thousands of people being pitched business opportunities, some successfully so and others not, by hundreds of franchisors (effectively, the IFA had succeeded in the deliberate facilitation of individual-opportunity nexus; Shane, 2003). As we reflected back we couldn’t help but think “wouldn’t this be a great way for our students to practice entrepreneurship?” After all, completing customer discovery, crafting compelling narratives, building brand identity, and learning to sell are core components of contemporary entrepreneurship education (cf., Ladd, 2016; Liguori, Cowden, & Hertz, 2016). It was then we decided Fresno State’s entrepreneurship capstone course (ENT 157) needed revamping.
There is no common way to implement entrepreneurship education in higher education, and a lack of research underpinning how it practically can be done. An increasing number of students undergo entrepreneurship education, and several studies highlight a need to develop new pedagogical methods. This paper examines how visual research methods can contribute as didactic tools in entrepreneurship education. A visual-based exercise, conducted with 394 students from different disciplines, is presented and analysed, showing that images create interactive and reflective ways to see and talk about entrepreneurship, thus making students’ perceptions visible and helping educators to better student-customize their education.
Bill Aulet, Andrew Hargadon, Luke Pittaway, Candida Brush and Sharon Alpi
One of the most commented on and, arguably, acclaimed, contributions of the last volume of USASBE’s Annals of Entrepreneurship Education and Pedagogy was the entry titled “What I’ve Learned About Teaching Entrepreneurship: Perspectives of Five Master Educators” authored by Jerome Engel, Minet Schindehutte, Heidi Neck, Ray Smilor, and Bill Rossi. Engel and colleagues took time to practice deep reflection on their experiences teaching entrepreneurship and then translated their learnings into deeply meaningful insights for the field to draw from. In planning this volume, the editors believed it was important to build upon this work, so we invited five new entrepreneurship educators to share what they have learned about teaching entrepreneurship. Again, we reached out to faculty members acknowledged by their peers, leading academic organizations, their institutions, and their students to be among the very best in entrepreneurship education. And again, each of these individuals has over a decade of experience in the entrepreneurship classroom and has witnessed the rapid evolution of a very dynamic discipline. In the pages that follow Bill Aulet, Andrew Hargadon, Luke Pittaway, Candida Brush, and Sharon Alpi share their reflections on decades of cumulative experience both inside and outside the classroom.
Michael H. Morris, Susana C. Santos and Xaver Neumeyer
Michael H. Morris, Susana C. Santos and Xaver Neumeyer
Robert D. Hisrich and Veland Ramadani
Ten Factors for Entrepreneurial Success
Paul D. Reynolds
Paul D. Reynolds
How do nascent entrepreneurs create a business? They do things! Popular start-up activities are summarized in Table 7.1. They are ordered by the proportion of nascent ventures where they have been initiated. The rightmost column indicates those that occurred in the first month of the start-up process. While many more start-up activities could be added, these are many of the most common and important.1 Some activities are clearly more popular than others. Everybody gives serious thought to their nascent venture; it is reported by all those active in business creation. But serious thought is not action, and many talk the talk but don’t even take the first steps to walk the walk. Hence, it is more useful to focus on what is done to create a new firm. These activities, however, vary in character. Some are a one-time event, such as establishing a business phone number or registration with a government agency, while others are a continuous activity, such as developing financial projections or promotion of the products, which may be adjusted as additional information becomes available. For this reason, the focus is on tracking initiation of a start-up activity, not when it is completed.