A key component of economic globalization is the transnational production of goods and services. Global value chains and global production networks are two related analytical frameworks that have been developed to help understand the organization of such economic activity and its development implications. This chapter briefly reviews the creation of such frameworks and their contribution in terms of understanding the organization and governance of the global economy. We then explore the less-focused on dimensions of spatiality and territoriality, including through examples from research on India’s pharmaceutical and Philippines’ services industries. Current changes in the global economy have raised the stakes for understanding the shifting geographies of global production networks and engaging more closely with their territorial dimensions.
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Jana M. Kleibert and Rory Horner
Using a definition that emphasizes homogeneity, hybridization, interdependence and smoother and swifter flows of money, people, images, values and ideas across national borders, the links between globalization and health are examined across four themes: health and the environment, the movement of people, the movement of economic activities and health care as a global economic activity. Under each theme, how globalization affects health is examined at various geographic scales from the global to the local. In the section on health and the environment the impacts of global climate, air and water pollution are the foci for discussion. The section on the movement of people looks at documented immigration as a global phenomenon, refugees at the regional level, rural to urban migration and everyday airline travel, all of which generate health challenges and challenge health care systems. In the section on the movement of economic activities, the movement of industries has created new health challenges for developed and developing countries. Medical tourism is also examined as an activity that is at the intersection of economics and health and expedited through globalization. Under the fourth theme, health and health care are examined as global industries where the international pharmaceutical, food, beverage and tobacco industries are highlighted for the ways that they use the nature of globalization to their advantage even if it disadvantages the health of people regardless of whether they live in the developed or developing world.
Anne-Laure Amilhat Szary
The chapter discusses the importance of movement in our understanding of globalization and suggests ways to nuance a common assumption: that all kinds of mobilities are steadily expanding as globalization expands. The chapter contextualizes the evolution of the spatio-temporal dimensions of mobility and migration and its organizational dimensions, insisting on the agency of mobile individuals within a complex and multi-scalar policy framework. It shows how it has become very difficult to map contemporary moving patterns, which do not correspond anymore to arrows tracing direct trajectories from one point to another: the example of still-points on the migratory roads towards Europe, notably when migrants get ‘lost in migration’, held still for months or years in facilities where they are detained due to the lack of legal status. While pinpointing the contradictory evolution of mobility and migration, the chapter however insists on the fact that the mobile component of all socio-spatial processes has now been uncovered, forcing us towards mobile epistemologies that consider mobility as the rule rather than an exception within political and social constructs.
Hong-gang Xu and Yue-fang Wu
Geography has been one of the earliest disciplines to get involved in tourism research. This chapter reviews the conceptualization of tourism geography in a globalizing world, and the diverse theoretical and methodological approaches. To theorize the perspectives in the discipline, the spatio-temporal, social and political-economic dimensions are investigated. The ‘global–local nexus’ is employed as a central structure in understanding the dialectics of production and consumption and tensions between the global and the local. And it is pointed out that, the ‘cultural turn’ and non-representational conditions and concerns have influenced the growth of interest in tourism by human geographers. The chapter also reflects on the shifting trends in global tourism industry. Tourism in emerging world regions are now adding to the complexity of the phenomenon. This highlights the demand for new, innovative theoretical perspectives to explore emerging issues.
Human rights, the basic idea that all human beings are born with universal, inalienable and indivisible rights, has undergone a remarkable global spread since the formulation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Similarly, there is an ever-expanding amount of individuals and organizations working in the field of humanitarianism, to advance these rights. This chapter discusses the conceptualization of human rights over time and their place in disciplines like philosophy, law and the social sciences. From international law perspective, many human rights treaties have acquired global relevance. Empirically, on the other hand, there are vast differences in the degree of rights realization within and between nations. In addition, it sets out how human rights have been institutionalized, internationally, regionally but also within nation states, with a key role for civil society in these processes at all levels. A central paradox of human rights is the fact that they theoretically and legally rely on nation states for their protection and promotion, whilst these same states are often the greatest human rights abusers. The two examples discussed in this context, the Responsibility to Protect and Human Rights Cities, illustrate how human rights empirically cannot rely on nation states alone, but can only be fully realized by the combined forces of global governance and local adaption and protection. In all, human rights are both a driver and a product of globalization, and can serve as a countervailing power to its excesses. In order to deliver upon this promise of global justice, however, it is important that human rights take into account a variety of worldviews, religions and cultures worldwide in both processes of rights agenda-setting and in their implementation.
James W. Scott
Globalization has had an immense impact on border studies. One the most important of these impacts has been a shift from a dominant concern with formal state frontiers and ethno-cultural areas to the investigation of border-making in diverse socio-spatial contexts and geographical scales. This has also encouraged a shift to multifaceted processes of border-making and their social consequences. Globalization has also contributed to the breaking down of separations between discrete disciplinary approaches within border research. As a research field, border studies now encompass a wide range of disciplines besides human geography: political science, sociology, anthropology, history, international law as well as the humanities – notably art, media studies and philosophy. Going beyond exclusively state-centred and territorial paradigms, the present state of debate emphasizes that borders are not given, they emerge through socio-political and cultural border-making or bordering that takes place within society. Engagement with globalization has induced border studies research to take seriously the interrelatedness of all previous thinking about the investigation and interpreting of borders. In the contemporary practice of border studies, literature and art tell us as much about borders, borderlands and border crossings as do ethnographic or historical investigations. It is precisely the disruptive force of globalization – whether real or imagined – that drives home the main argument of border studies: that borders are in a constant process of confirmation, contestation, transformation and re-confirmation.
Martin Müller and Christopher Gaffney
Sports mega-events such as the Olympic Games and the Football World Cup are quintessential expressions of the multiple facets of globalization. This contribution analyses mega-events as the drivers and outcomes of a vortex of global flows of people, capital, images, and knowledge. It examines the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro as an example of how global flows are articulated in local contexts.
The combined forces of the current era of globalization, also sometimes referred to as the Anthropocene, reveal the limits of our natural resources and sinks, and the ways in which inequality is deepening worldwide more clearly than before. The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aims to address both problems – the planetary boundaries and the social floors, but the question is whether it will remain at best a symptomatic response to a deep structural problem, or whether it will be able to unleash a global movement that is able to tame the capitalist free market.
Advances in globalization have produced two interrelated shifts in the security and defense sector. First, the growing interconnectedness and interactions have led to changes in how we conceptualize the global marketplace of security services due to the broadening of the modes of political violence and the emergence of transnational actors. Second, the technological innovation and information revolution brought about by globalization have forced national governments to seek external opportunities for the development of its arms industry – the global network of arms production. Yet, the increasing privatization of security and the global chain of arms production and development in the post-Cold War era remains an incremental process.
Kevin R. Cox
The most recent round of globalization generated an enhanced interest in geographic scale. The contributions of the scalar restructuring school have been particularly prominent. While some of the empirical tendencies identified there can be disputed, the major concern in this chapter is its under-specification of the capitalist nature of processes of scale formation and the associated role of geographically uneven development and both between and within countries.