This chapter studies labor market resilience after a disaster, and proposes an empirical application to understand specific aspects of it. Different types of re-orientation are defined and estimated using data of workers in the regions affected by an earthquake. Results indicate that the probability of employment was the most significant impact of the disaster, while industry switching and wage growth are neither affected by the earthquake nor by place-specific characteristics. Positive and negative convergence effects are observed in the poorest and richest regions, respectively. We also observe heterogeneity among industries, although these effects are not essentially different to the pre-disaster years.
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Benjamin Jara and Alessandra Faggian
Roger R. Stough
A series of cluster and regional dynamics studies provide growing evidence that supports a hypothesis that industrial clusters evolve somewhat regularly through a series of stages. This stage or cycle theory views clusters as proceeding from initiation to some asymptotic limit with subsequent decline and/or rejuvenation, that is, resiliency. This chapter examines, on the basis of several case studies, the process or lack of a process that lagging or declining clusters use to reinvent themselves or fail. Examination of the case studies reveals five general types of histories that clusters and their regions, and their urban contexts appear to experience. From this research a typology of cluster dynamics (resiliency types) is proposed. Clusters in this chapter are defined as having a geographic locus as well as an extra local network component and are viewed from a systems perspective.
Magdolna Benke, Klára Czimre, Katalin R. Forray, Tamás Kozma, Sándor Márton and Károly Teperics
Our study reconsiders the results of the LeaRn (Learning Regions in Hungary: From Theory to Reality) research project, focusing on the potential contribution of learning regions to regional resilience. After drawing attention to some key points of the theoretical background of learning regions and resilience, we present the results of the statistical examination of the spatial centres of learning and identify the potential learning regions in Hungary. Finally, we explain the main findings of case studies which indicated (if not proved) the connection between successful community learning and socio-economic resiliency. The complex indicator and map of learning regions convey important messages about the conditions and potentials of the evolution of learning regions, learning cities and learning communities in Hungary including the area of regional resilience. Our hypothesis, therefore, is that learning regions in Hungary have the potential for becoming resilient regions as a consequence of the geographic, cultural and social proximity. The study offers evidence to confirm the role of the LeaRn Index set up for the Hungarian learning patterns in this process. Comparing the learning patterns of the Hungarian settlements with socio-economic indicators allows us to conclude that those regions which are more open to learning have better economic indicators and well-being indexes.
Masagus M. Ridhwan and Pakasa Bary
This chapter attempts to examine the effects of macroeconomic shocks across Indonesian regions. In doing so, we have developed structural macroeconomic models for 32 provinces, which are later estimated by around 28 pairs of ECM-based equations which represents demand-side output, supply-side output, monetary, fiscal, and prices in each economy. The responses are specifically evaluated due to four types of main shocks that are originated from both domestic economy based on credit volumes and administered price inflation, while from external shocks we use world output and exchange rate shocks, respectively. Our findings indicate there are systematic differential responses to the common shocks on both provincial output and inflation, that may well be related to the individual provincial economic structures and its specific characteristics. Java – the most developed and diversified economy – tends to be more resilient to the shocks relative to the off-Java regions. The models and estimation results tend to be robust by fulfilling classical econometrics assumptions and well-present the standard macroeconomic theory. The results also assert the importance of regional economic structures and characteristics in formulating nationwide macroeconomic policy.
Edited by Tüzin Baycan and Hugo Pinto
Tüzin Baycan and Hugo Pinto
This volume brings together regional scientists interested in the study of crisis and innovation dynamics. Resilience here is used as a bridging notion to connect different types of theoretical and empirical approaches to the comprehension of the impacts of economic turbulence at the system and actor levels. The volume helps to rethink how regional resilience can be improved and how the social aspects of vulnerability, resilience and innovation can be integrated. It also addresses recent theories and concepts related to research on crisis, resilience and innovation dynamics, providing a valuable overview and introduction to this rapidly emerging field for academics, policy-makers, researchers and students who share a common interest in and commitment to resilience and innovation.
Hugo Pinto and Tiago Santos Pereira
The recent economic turbulence was characterized by recessionary dynamics, differentiated problems in specific territories and changes in science, technology and innovation. In this context, the chapter debates the notion of resilience as an adaptive capacity that allows overcoming negative effects of internal and external shocks, and creating growth trajectories in different socio-economic systems. The chapter gives emphasis to the need to delimit the system to be analysed and suggests that a “regional innovation system” is a good candidate to analyse in the study of science, technology and innovation resilience. The text also suggests that the analysis of systemic failures is crucial for a deeper understanding of internal fragilities. The chapter concludes with implications for the resilience of innovation.
Roberta Comunian and Lauren England
Our understanding of clusters and their evolution and resilience has expanded in the last decades. However, little research has considered the importance of resilience and evolution with specific reference to creative clusters. The chapter aims to connect the emergent literature on resilience and evolutionary perspectives in economic geography with our current knowledge and understanding of creative clusters. Focusing on the craft sector in the UK, the concept of resilience is explored as a conceptual framework to explain and explore the shift from industrial to post-industrial economies. The focus of the chapter is on the resilience of knowledge – and the role of networks in supporting this resilience in the shift between industrial production and creative making.
Mete Başar Baypınar
Knowledge-intensive sectors are a significant interest both for regional planners and policy makers, as they promise better jobs and economic growth. The industry is characteristically a networked industry of a large number of clusters, where new clusters from emerging countries continuously join. The industrial spatial structure has changed significantly, after almost every major policy change or crisis. While some clusters seem to dominate and persist, others have been lost at the expense of emerging clusters. This study attempts to focus on the software industry in Turkey, where the industry has multiple locations. The resilience of the industry seems to be highly dependent on the changes in the global industrial structure, economic and policy shocks, and state support. Depending on an adaptive resilience perspective and on an extensive literature survey, expert opinions and secondary data, the study finds that mixed peripherality–core properties, creation and retention of variation, knowledge spillovers and anticipatory behaviors of actors in the industry all play critical roles on the resilience of local software clusters. Findings of the study suggest that policy makers should not adopt generic strategies but focus on well-defined targets and unique strategies regarding the life cycle of the subject industry.