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Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter elaborates a Schumpeterian version of the H–O model (S–H–O) based on the hypothesis that technological change is endogenous and biased towards the most intensive use of production factors that are locally most abundant in comparative terms. In the standard H–O model, the differences between trading partners in the levels of the output elasticity of inputs and technological change are exogenous. The (S–H–O) model rests on the Schumpeterian notion of the creative response of firms which, caught in out-of-equilibrium conditions by the changing conditions of both factor and product markets, try to react by introducing biased technological changes directed towards the most intensive use of inputs that are locally most abundant in relative terms. The actual introduction of technological innovations, however, will depend on the availability of appropriate knowledge externalities. According to this framework, countries exposed to the out-of-equilibrium conditions engendered by enhanced globalization react with the introduction of new technologies biased towards the intensive use of technological knowledge as the most abundant and specific input. Technological knowledge in fact is characterized by its strong collective and systemic character that limits its dissemination and use outside its context of origin.

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Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter accommodates in the Schumpeterian frame of the creative response recent advances in the economics of innovation, technological change and knowledge to articulate a comprehensive model of Schumpeterian growth. Schumpeterian rivalry in product markets engenders mismatches in product markets and the consequent flows of R & D expenditures. Knowledge appropriability declines over time so that additional knowledge piles up, increasing the stock of public knowledge. Because of knowledge indivisibility – articulated in knowledge complementarity, exhaustibility, cumulability and transient appropriability – knowledge externalities are diachronic. Diachronic externalities stemming from the stock of public knowledge favour the generation of new technological knowledge, the search for technological congruence and the consequent reduction in the cost of knowledge. The secular decline in the cost of technological knowledge induces the creative reaction of firms, the search for higher levels of technological congruence and the consequent introduction of biased technological changes that augment the output elasticity of knowledge as an input. Knowledge cumulability and induced technological change account for the secular trend towards the knowledge economy.

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Standing on the shoulders of giants

The Economics of an Emergent System Property

Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter highlights the limits of current approaches to the economics of innovation. It also stresses their role in articulating a theory of innovation as an endogenous process that relies upon the characteristics of the system in which the response of firms to unexpected mismatches in both labour and factor markets takes place. The role of Marshallian contributions to Schumpeterian thinking is stressed.

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Cristiano Antonelli

Technological congruence is an emergent system property defined by the match between the relative size of output elasticity and the relative abundance and cost of inputs in local factor markets. With given total costs, output is larger the larger is the output elasticity of the cheapest input. Technological congruence is a powerful tool that helps in grasping the economic complexity of technological change with respect to determinants of the direction of technological change and its effects in terms of growth accounting and specialization, both at the firm and the system level. Its appreciation stems directly from advances in the economics of innovation in understanding the endogenous determinants of the introduction and diffusion of directed technological changes. Technological congruence is most relevant to influence the actual levels of total factor productivity of new technologies and, consequently, to shape the competitive advance of firms and countries.

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Towards an evolutionary complexity of endogenous innovation

The Economics of an Emergent System Property

Cristiano Antonelli

This chapter implements an evolutionary complexity approach that builds on the legacy of Schumpeter (1947) with the notions of: i) reactive decision-making; ii) multiple feedback; iii) innovation as the outcome of an emergent system process rather than individual action; iv); organized complexity and knowledge connectivity; iv) endogenous variety; and vi) non-ergodic path-dependent dynamics. Building on these bases, the chapter articulates an endogenous theory of innovation centred on analysis of the systemic conditions that make the creative reaction, and hence the introduction of innovations, possible.

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Kai Jakobs

This chapter discusses how companies may use the management of their information and communication technology (ICT) standardization activities to improve competitiveness and innovativeness. Case studies are presented to show different approaches to standardization management adopted by different types of companies in different parts of the ICT sector. The cases illustrate the variety of approaches to standards and standardization that firms and organizations might adopt, relative to several essential factors as drawn from the literature on both standards and innovation. This shows how different strategies emerge depending upon the relative importance of various strategic and tactical factors in participating firms. The chapter concludes by illustrating the variety of approaches to standards and standardization that managers in firms and organizations might adopt.

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Knut Blind

This chapter reviews the role of standards in creating new knowledge and applying it to products and services. Participation in standards development can add significantly to the knowledge base of innovating firms, but standards can also generate negative effects. How they are developed has a significant effect on their outcomes in terms of stimulating or retarding innovation. Questions of the legitimacy of standards and the role of institutions and rules in reflecting a legitimate consensus of affected stakeholders are also critical is this regard. The chapter explores such fundamentals in terms of their economic implications for several of the key activities and practices associated with innovation, for example research and development, public procurement, intellectual property rights, technology transfer and the creation of market demand.

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Edited by Richard Hawkins, Knut Blind and Robert Page

Innovation and standardization might seem polar opposites, but over many years various scholars have noted close connections between the two. This Handbook assembles a broad range of thinking on this subject, with contributions from several disciplinary perspectives by over 30 leading scholars and experienced practitioners. Collectively, they summarize and synthesize the existing body of knowledge – theory and evidence – pertaining to standards and innovation, and provide insights into how this knowledge can be useful to scholars, industrial strategists, policy-makers and standards practitioners.
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Henk J. de Vries and Paul Moritz Wiegmann

Most studies of the impact of standardization on innovation focus on manufacturing sectors for which they often report positive impacts. However, in many countries services represent more than 50 per cent of gross domestic product, and while the number of standards for services is small, it is increasing. This chapter addresses service standardization and its impacts on innovation. First, it presents a model that allows to study service standardization and innovation in a systematic way. Next, the authors develop a conceptual model of the impact of service standards and involvement in service standardization committees on service innovation at the level of individual organizations as well as at market level. Testing this model in an empirical case, they show a positive impact of a standard at both levels, which seems to be enhanced by participation in standards setting. However, this is just one case and many categories of service standards and of service innovation apply, so more research is needed; the chapter ends with suggested directions for future research.

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Richard Hawkins and Knut Blind

This introduction explores the conceptual background and definitions that pertain to understanding standards and standardization in the context of innovation. A general overview is provided of the themes explored in the chapters that follow.