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Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Giovanni B. Dagnino, Sharon Alvarez and Rosario Faraci

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Nicolai J. Foss and Jacob Lyngsie

In this chapter, the authors develop a framework to understand how organizational design fosters those behaviors that aggregate up firm-level entrepreneurial outcomes in an entrepreneurial ecosystem. Their proposition is that organizational design variables profoundly shape the acquisition, development, and organization of the focal firm’s entrepreneurial skill set, and in turn the discovery, evaluation, and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Overall, they sketch a framework that links organizational design, intra-firm entrepreneurial behaviors, and firm-level entrepreneurship.

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Ravi S. Ramani, George T. Solomon and Nawaf Alabduljader

We present a qualitative review of the state of the field of entrepreneurship education in North America, in which we examine topics such as the growth of the field, its attempts to differentiate itself from traditional business education, and current learning approaches and methodologies used in the classroom. We supplement this review with an analytical examination in which we present the results of a cross-country survey of over 200 entrepreneurship education programs in the United States (US) and Canada. Our results reveal important similarities and differences regarding entrepreneurship education between the US and Canada in terms of course content, pedagogical approaches and learning materials used, sources of funding, and measures of the impact of entrepreneurship education. We discuss the implications of these results and outline future directions for the field of entrepreneurship education.

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Emanuele Parisi, Angelo Miglietta and Dario Peirone

In this chapter, the authors map the business incubators’ perimeter, highlighting their role as connector and activation centers of entrepreneurial ecosystems, thereby setting the theoretical framework for an assessment model based on success drivers derived from global best practices. This framework can be used to aggregate and harmonize the effectiveness of incubation activities in given perimeters, helping investors to better allocate resources and offering useful insights to governments in addressing national public policies.

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Paula Kyrö

By building a bridge between the conceptual discussion of education science and entrepreneurship, this chapter demarcates the role of entrepreneurship education as a form of pedagogy and its connection to a progressive movement. As a form of pedagogy, entrepreneurship education changes the idea of the human being, brings action-orientation, autonomy and interplay between risk and responsibility to the centre of the learning process. It also challenges the previous ontological, epistemological and in some respect axiological bases of earlier learning paradigms and presents new ideas for pedagogy and didactics. Thus, seen from an educational perspective, entrepreneurship can now be perceived as a form of pedagogy that renews the previous learning paradigms and furthers educational institutional practices.

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Michela Loi

Drawing upon the systems perspective that was developed to understand the impact of training and development activities within organizational contexts, this chapter presents a systemic approach to the analysis of entrepreneurship education effectiveness. Five main theoretical assumptions are outlined to guide future research in entrepreneurship education: studies show that (1) the effects of a programme vary depending on trainees’ personal characteristics; (2) training strategies can have different impact on learning processes and results; (3) the environment and the social context are intervening variables that might foster or hinder training results; (4) according to the attribute-treatment interaction perspective, people interact with the contexts in which they are embedded giving rise to very different behavioural responses; (5) the impact should be conceived in terms of learning results and generalization processes once a training programme is completed. These assumptions help figure out new possible lines of research to enhance the current knowledge and are thought to encourage a scientific debate regarding the theoretical assumptions that are worth considering for assessing entrepreneurship education.

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Jeffrey J. McNally, Benson Honig and Bruce Martin

Though the development of wisdom is a primary goal of higher education, it has received little empirical attention in an entrepreneurship education (EE) context. We conduct a preliminary, exploratory investigation into the teaching of wisdom in EE. Applying Sternberg’s (1998) balance theory of wisdom, we examine whether entrepreneurship courses deliver on the potential of wisdom development by studying the syllabi of 50 university entrepreneurship courses from around the world. We also examine the contents of the major entrepreneurship textbooks used in EE classrooms today. We find that both textbook use and course design are negatively related to the development of wisdom in the classroom. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

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Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Giovanni B. Dagnino, Sharon Alvarez and Rosario Faraci

Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and the Diffusion of Startups addresses, for the first time, the emerging notion of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Chapters from leading scholars in the fields of entrepreneurship and strategy explore new ideas and provoke debate in both academia and practice. Covering the emergence, dynamics and management of entrepreneurial ecosystems and offering conceptual tools, experimental evidence and practical examples, this book will be invaluable to those seeking a greater understanding of entrepreneurship and startup strategies, both practitioners and students.
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Jonas Gabrielsson, Hans Landström, Diamanto Politis and Gustav Hägg

The growth of entrepreneurship education has played an important role in building up an academic infrastructure for entrepreneurship research. In this chapter we identify exemplary European contributions to entrepreneurship education research and practice. We discuss the evolution of entrepreneurship education as a scholarly field in Europe with particular emphasis on its social infrastructure and cognitive development. Thereafter we use a systematic literature review to identify important contributions made by European-based scholars to entrepreneurship education research published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Based on the review we identify top research journals with the most published articles on entrepreneurship education, the most cited articles, and the most influential scholars. We end the chapter with a description of the European Entrepreneurship Education Award (EEEA) together with summary analyses of the work of the six Award Laureates.

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Patricia G. Greene, Michael L. Fetters, Richard Bliss and Anne Donnellon

In 2004, Henry Mintzberg launched a powerful critique of business education that spurred much debate, discussion, and innovation in our schools. While we do not disagree with his premises, we believe that most of the activity since has been akin to the old cliché of ‘rearranging the deck chairs on the Titanic’. As we academics have focused on improving our offerings to degree candidates, many business people, and certainly those who start or run their own businesses, have been looking elsewhere for education – a trend that colleges and universities cannot afford to ignore. In this chapter, we suggest that academic business educators have much to learn from what is occurring outside of our walls. We focus on one program in particular, Goldman Sachs 10,000 Small Businesses, to demonstrate how several central debates and unexamined assumptions in management education can be re-examined to enhance our ability to contribute to economic development. The same can be said of institutional arrangements that limit our reach and impact. Our example identifies how these barriers can be overcome to the benefit of the majority of businesses and business people, in this United States, and throughout the world.