This concluding chapter synthesises findings, discusses the role of homes, households and neighbourhoods for entrepreneurship, comments on methods and data needed to do research on the connections between entrepreneurship and homes and neighbourhoods, and finally presents ideas for future research. It argues that concepts of capital theory are key in understanding the links between home, households, neighbourhoods and entrepreneurship. It highlights three key findings: first, multiple resources for entrepreneurship are attributed to neighbourhoods; second, personal and household sources overlap and are closely interrelated; and, third, homes are sources of economic and social capital that are useful for entrepreneurship. The role of neighbourhoods and the domestic sphere for entrepreneurship underlines that not only are cities relevant for entrepreneurship, as they provide localisation and urbanisation benefits, but the symbolic value of some (creative) neighbourhoods can attract (would-be) entrepreneurs, a tolerant culture towards working mothers and ethnic minorities can foster entrepreneurial potential, and the variety of affordable commercial premises and housing helps business start-ups and growth. The chapter defines five areas of interdisciplinary entrepreneurship research: time–space patterns, entrepreneurial capital, social class, family embeddedness and well-being. Combining both quantitative and qualitative methods appears to be particularly fruitful for unravelling networks and neighbourhood characteristics relevant to entrepreneurial activity.
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Darja Reuschke, Colin Mason, Stephen Syrett and Maarten van Ham
Timothy W. Luke
This chapter provides a provisional reading of how critical interpretative policy studies could productively approach the challenges of interpreting power as an object of political analysis. It presents this case by re-evaluating the sites and settings in which power typically is studied by policy analysis. The discussion, however, makes a case for interpreting power, as a set of directive relations, which is co-evolving and co-constituting in agent-structure interactions with knowledge. It encourages critical policy analysis to thoroughly contest technocratic uses of power in policy-making, and endorses the acceptance of more flexible and fluid interpretations of power at work in multiple sites and settings at all levels of governance.
Francesca Forno, Cristina Grasseni and Silvana Signori
Contemporary societal analyses often contrast consumers and citizens as having competing roles. In the highly individualized ‘consumer society’, the profit-driven, calculating consumer is often opposed to the citizen who should act in the name of the public good. Yet many contemporary social movements address consumers precisely in their capacity to leverage societal change and environmental sustainability. Some try to move beyond political consumerism as a form of merely individual responsibility to develop fully fledged, citizenship-driven alternative styles of provisioning. Italy’s Solidarity Purchase Groups are a particularly interesting case study. Our work unveils the collective processes of their mobilization. These groups aim not only to exercise ethical or critical consumption but also to co-produce common benefits, to intervene in local food-provisioning chains, and to reintroduce issues of social and environmental sustainability in regional economies. They sometimes explicitly express the ambition of participating in public governance. On the basis of detailed quantitative and qualitative research on Solidarity Purchase Groups in Italy, this chapter contextualizes such dynamics within the theoretical framework of sustainable citizenship as social practice. Our thesis is that political consumerism may well be not only the objective, but also frequently the result, of engaged practices of direct democracy. Keywords: solidarity purchase groups, critical consumption, new forms of political participation, social movements, individual and collective responsibility.
Durnová’s chapter sketches out the recent research on discourse and deliberation in policy in order to show that emotions represent a crucial point of intersection between the individual and the collective dimensions of discourse and, as such, structure deliberation. Emotions affect the nature of the knowledge at stake in deliberation, they shape the repartition of actors who take part in the process, and they shape the way in which they take part in it.
Helen Ingram and Anne L. Schneider
In this chapter we explore the social construction of target populations. Policies have a wide variety of pathways through which various problems might be addressed or purposes achieved. Policy makers often choose roundabout courses of action and select target groups whose actions are only loosely related to goals. Target groups are decided upon on the basis of various criteria, including importantly their power and the social construction of their deservedness. We offer a template for classifying target groups into four basic kinds: advantaged, disadvantaged, contenders and deviants, along with the policy tools and implementation structures usually directed towards each kind. The categories we suggest are a useful tool to critical policy scholars. A worthy aim of critical research is to unmask the ineffective, illogical and unfair policy treatment and undemocratic values embedded in policies in which citizens have unequal voices and are treated inequitably.
Stephanie Paterson and Francesca Scala
Feminist policy studies is a relatively new subfield in policy studies, bringing together insights from multiple disciplines across the social sciences. Where early work focused on the gendered and gendering dimensions of policy, the field has since expanded to include several feminist frameworks aimed at interrogating the procedural, substantive and discursive dimensions of policy. Together this work has demonstrated that all policy is gendered. With a strong commitment to social justice, feminist policy studies offers theoretical and methodological tools through which to expose and potentially remedy social hierarchies, which are the focus of this chapter. The chapter proceeds in three sections. In the first section, we present a broad overview of the field, discussing its rich epistemological and methodological diversity, as well as its connection to critical policy studies. The second section focuses attention on some of the key contributions to feminist policy studies, considering some of the ways in which feminist scholars have examined policy processes and outcomes. Finally, in the third section, we illuminate the unique insights of feminist policy studies through a case study on tobacco control policy in which we compare and contrast three broad approaches to policy studies. We conclude with a discussion of the ongoing challenges of feminist policy studies and possible future developments in the field.
Interpretive policy analysis – which derived its name from the interpretive turn under way in the latter part of the 20th century across the social sciences – departed from a different set of methodological presuppositions from those informing policy analysis as that practice had been initially conceived. Shifting analytic focus away from instrumental rationality, it turned to meaning-making – its expression as well as its communication – as an alternative for explaining human action. This chapter expounds on this background, highlighting the ontological and epistemological presuppositions that lie at the heart of interpretive policy analysis, and their methodological implications, illustrated by an example from the author’s research.
Yue Zhuo and Zai Liang
China’s rural-to-urban migration during the past few decades is the largest in human history and has also had tremendous social and economic consequences. Although much is known about the causes and economic consequences of this migration, we know relatively very little about the impact of migration on the wellbeing of the elderly in rural China. Utilizing data from a national survey, this chapter examines the associations between adult children’s migration and multiple dimensions of the elderly wellbeing in rural China. The results show that the rural elderly with migrant children received more money from children than those without migrant children. They were also more likely to live in better quality houses. But living arrangements did not significantly differ between the two groups. Having migrant children was linked to better health status but lower levels of life satisfaction. The findings are suggestive of a multidimensional framework for research on migration and the left behind. The policy implications are also discussed.
Fei Guo and Robyn R. Iredale
The recent unprecedented scale of Chinese migration has had far-reaching consequences. Within China, many villages have been drained of their young and most able workers, cities have been swamped by the ‘floating population’. Many rural migrants are unable to integrate into urban society. Internationally, Chinese have been increasingly more mobile. This Handbook provides a unique collection of new and original research on internal and international Chinese migration and its effects on the sense of belonging of migrants.