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Clément Pin and Déborah Galimberti
In recent decades, individuals and organizations with an interest in arboriculture have adopted the “urban forest” as a holistic way of conceptualizing and managing the city’s woody vegetation. With increasing prevalence, individual trees are becoming parts of an urban forest whole providing measurable services and benefits authorities can use to make cities more liveable, sustainable, and globally competitive places. Liveability and sustainability are highly desirable goals, but the qualities urban forestry lends to the city’s trees and wooded areas can seem a world away from their ordinary rhythms and cultural lifeworlds. Developing a response to this dissonance, I will use this chapter to shine some light on the quotidian complexity of making and living with one reafforested space in the city of Brisbane, Australia. To do so, I use Deleuze and Guattari’s notion of assemblage to pry open the urban forest and grapple with the multiple ways of arranging and territorializing a place called Moorhen Flats Reserve. What emerges is a sense of the more-than-human actors, practices, and events involved in making Moorhen according to different political problems, issues and desires. Noting actual and potential points of disharmony emerging from the multiplicity of urban forest spaces, I suggest researchers could pay more attention to the lines of conflict and tension cutting across different regimes of making and living with the city’s trees.
This chapter examines the ways in which urban subjectivities emerge through environmental stewardship. Employing Michel Foucault’s notion of governmentality, it examines the fluidity of power relations as everyday citizens internalize, resist, negotiate with, or transcend expert scientific knowledge about urban environments while engaging in environmental stewardship practices. Drawing from research conducted in Philadelphia, PA, it focuses on participants in the city’s ecological restoration program, the tendency of environmental restoration to reinforce a division between natural lands and urban spaces, and the tendency of restoration participants to contest this division. Environmental stewardship, therefore, is theorized as a site of possibility in which performances in and about parks can disrupt or reinforce dominant discourses of urban environmentalism.
Drawing on research with the UK–Chilean exile community, this chapter explores the relationship between mental health and forced migration. While some refugees and exiles do suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of the terrible experiences they have endured, others are able to develop ‘resilience’ and ‘get on’ with their lives. Yet there is still a tendency towards predominately medicalised understanding of the mental health of forced migrants and refugees that fail to take into account the diverse experiences of individuals. As a consequence, the mental health needs of many forced migrants and refugees are not fully understood or acknowledged.
This chapter addresses the issue of children and young people’s participation and ‘voice’ in healthcare provision, in the wider context of their inclusion in social and political life and with a focus on young people who have migrated to the UK with their families. While children and young people’s participation in decisions that affect their lives is stipulated as a right through the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), public services still vary in their commitment and established mechanisms for including children and young people’s views in improving provision. The chapter draws on research with Eastern European migrant children newly arrived in the UK in relation to experiences of healthcare provision post-migration. The main focus is on their views of health service provision, the barriers they face in relation to health service use and the strategies migrant families adopt to overcome perceived shortcomings in provision, including adopting a transnational use of health services.
Stephanie Mayell and Janet McLaughlin
Migrant labour is a major component of the contemporary global economy, integrated across various sectors, industries and national contexts. In recent years, international instruments have focussed on recognizing and protecting migrant workers’ rights, however, their health considerations have been largely neglected in both policy and practice. Migrant workers face a variety of health risks across each stage of their journeys, although these risks and their outcomes vary considerably based on factors such as socioeconomic and legal status and gender. This chapter begins with a broad sketch of contemporary transnational labour migration, and proceeds to explore the health vulnerabilities faced by migrant workers during each stage of the migratory process. To follow, a case study of migrant agricultural workers in Canada illustrates the fluctuating health of workers throughout the migration process.
Migration is now firmly embedded as a leading global policy issue of the twenty-first century. While not a new phenomenon, it has altered significantly in recent decades, with changing demographics, geopolitics, conflict, climate change and patterns of global development shaping new types of migration. Such movement involves an increasingly diverse group of people, as well as shifting countries of origin, transit and destination in what is often a complex, multi-staged and at times lengthy process. This introductory chapter examines these changes and sets out the main themes underpinning the Handbook. The book is organised into six main sections: theories and models of migration; rights and deservingness; vulnerability and precarity; specific healthcare needs and priorities; healthcare provision; and transnational and diasporic networks. The chapters in the book are, in turn, underpinned by three common themes: (1) the intersectional nature of migration and health; (2) the broad neoliberal context within which many experiences of migration and health take place; and (3) the need to move beyond a ‘one-size fits all’ approach to health and healthcare to recognise how subjective perspectives, priorities and responses feed in to ideas about, and experiences relating to, health, treatment seeking and care.
This chapter attempts to relate health outcomes of migrants in receiving countries with respect to chronic diseases such as CVD and cancers as well as birth outcomes of migrant mothers, to health behaviours that have been demonstrated in research to constitute a risk to these outcomes, alongside other risk factors. By viewing morbidity and mortality patterns of migrants and birth outcomes within a framework that encompasses both sending and receiving country contexts and complex, varied determinants, the chapter tries to point out some of the weaknesses of the widely used ‘acculturation’ approaches that to a greater or lesser extent dominate research studies and commentaries with regard to migrant health behaviour. The chapter also attempts to reiterate the importance, highlighted in some other studies, of moving beyond associations between health behaviour and health outcomes among migrants to exploring multifaceted explanations of change in health behaviour and health outcomes. The chapter points to the importance for health policy of going beyond a simple linear focus on change in health behaviour of migrants in receiving countries, for example from ‘low’ to ‘high’ smoking levels or ‘healthy’ to ‘unhealthy’ diets, and on individual responsibility and choice in change, to formulate interventions that relate more to the contexts and influences that shape health behaviour and health outcomes of migrants.