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James A. Beckford

The complex and changing relations between religion and migration are central to many urgent questions about diversity, inequality and pluralism. This wide-ranging research review explores these questions in different periods of history, in different regions of the world and in different traditions of faith. The emphasis is on how religions inspire, manage and benefit from migration as well as on how the experience of migration affects religious beliefs, identities and practices. The review discusses articles which examine the interface between religion and migration at levels of analysis ranging from the local to the global, and from the individual to the faith community.
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James A. Beckford

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James A. Beckford

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Edited by François Gipouloux

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Timothy Cadman, Lauren Eastwood, Federico Lopez-Casero Michaelis, Tek N. Maraseni, Jamie Pittock and Tapan Sarker

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Edited by Karin Bäckstrand and Eva Lövbrand

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Lisa Dilling

As it becomes clearer that the earth is ‘committed’ to a certain amount of climate change despite greenhouse gas mitigation activities, the need for adaptation policy has been increasingly recognized. However, the fact that climate will be changing in uncertain and potentially unknown ways makes it difficult in many cases to develop firm prescriptive policy recommendations based on the environmental conditions of the future. As a result, the question of what successful adaptation policy looks like is still very much debated. Theoretical studies have advanced several different concepts of adaptation and its counterpart, vulnerability. The adaptation literature has focused on identifying characteristics of the decision process that might be effective in a deeply uncertain, highly contested and contextualized arena, such as flexibility, ‘robust’ decision-making, barriers that obstruct change, adaptive capacity, risk tolerance, and limits to adaptation. The discussion of limits has provoked considerations of transformational adaptation, and how and in what circumstances such transformations take place. Simple prescriptions for policy such as ‘no regrets’ or ‘low regrets’ actions seem inadequate as a substitute for true climate adaptation policy—although certainly may provide a useful starting place. Fundamentally we might ask: what is needed for effective governance for climate adaptation given the range of worldviews about risk? Does climate adaptation pose different governance challenges than responding to already recognized risk and uncertainty? And, even more importantly, what should various publics expect from decision-makers as they proceed to govern in the face of climate change?

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Timothy Cadman, Lauren Eastwood, Federico Lopez-Casero Michaelis, Tek N. Maraseni, Jamie Pittock and Tapan Sarker

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Dietmar Braun

The search for causal inferences while respecting the variety and specifics of the empirical world remains a conundrum in comparative politics. The chapter reveals the problems and solutions that have been discussed by focusing on one of the most important methodological instruments, i.e. classification and more in particular on system-wide typologies. While the first part focuses on analytic differentiation as the ʽtraditionalʼ strategy of tackling the conundrum, the second part treats more recent and somewhat opposed developments, which challenge classification building. The turn to multi-causality in explanatory frameworks raises the complexity of classification building and makes the search for causal inferences more difficult, while the growing influence of rational choice theory in comparative politics aspires to reduce complexity in classification building and raise the capacity to generalize.