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Benoît Godin

In the 1940s, sociologists attempted to secure a place in the emerging field of technological change. They tried to appropriate technological change as a term, embodying the term in a totally different framework. To sociologists, technological change has a broader meaning than the economic sense of the term. Technological change refers to a large range of effects of technology on society, which they call social change due to technology. The vocabulary used to discuss technological change reflects this interest: social impacts, social implications and social consequences, and, to a lesser extent, human problems and human relations. Over the years, technological change as a term and a research tradition faded from the narratives of historians of “Science, Technology and Society” (STS). Accounts of the history of STS generally start in the mid- 1960s, that is, upon the institutionalization of STS in university programs (for example, Cutcliffe, 1989, 1990; Jasanoff, 2010), while other narratives start in the 1980s, with authors like Donald Mackenzie, Wiebe Bijker and Michel Callon. Meanwhile, the history of technological change was left unstudied.

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Benoît Godin

Theories of innovation are over one hundred years old, and theoretical thoughts on the subject have multiplied in recent decades. For most of history, the theories are not technological. One reads, again and again, that theories of innovation come from economics, particularly from Joseph Schumpeter, as if economics were the whole story. “The term ‘innovation’”, states historian of technology John Staudenmaier, “appears to have originated in a tradition of economic analysis” (Staudenmaier, 1985: 56). Staudenmaier is not alone in this belief. “The founding framework of innovation” is Schumpeter, states Norbert Alter (Alter, 2000: 8). This is a common attribution of innovation’s origin or ancestry (for example, Martin, 2008; Fagerberg and Verspagen, 2009). A dominant and economically-oriented field is responsible for such a historiography. However, theories are far more diverse than the standard historical perspective would lead us to believe. Schumpeter was only one among many theorists who studied innovation over the twentieth century. Scholars later resurrected Schumpeter to give legitimacy to a specific framework (Godin, 2012, 2014). As Michael Freeden suggests: “Ideologies are constantly engaged in reconstructing their own history” (Freeden, 1996: 239). The purpose of this chapter is to provide a historical perspective on theories of innovation, and a sense of their broad range. Over the twentieth century, scholars have produced a diversity of theories, a diversity that came, over time, to be dominated by a few theories, or a particular kind of theory: technological innovation. What are these theories? How do they explain innovation? With what conceptual apparatus?

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Benoît Godin

There is an assumption among scholars that political thinking is a secondorder phenomenon, at best a matter of co-production between policymakers and scholars. This would make it an effect rather than a cause of the theoretical thinking. The documents surveyed in this chapter are witness to the fact that policy-makers produced thoughts on technological innovation that, to varying degrees, preceded and influenced scholars’ representations of innovation in the following decades. Public organizations were among the first to produce titles on “technological innovation”, providing sources scholars could draw from. This chapter reviews three precursor documents on technological innovation that two governments and one international organization produced in the 1960s. In turn, I examine documents from the OECD, the United States and England and discuss a convergence of ideas on technological innovation.

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Julia M. Puaschunder

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Julia M. Puaschunder

External shocks from the economic depressions and wars of the past have impacted on the quality of life of the young ever since and steered attention to social responsibility (Puaschunder, 2010). But it is unknown what future risks and opportunities will arise for the future perspectives of young people today in the aftermath of the 2008/09 World Financial Crisis given unprecedented governmental overindebtedness, an aging Western world population and irreversible environmental damage. How to face these unfamiliar challenges should become the focus of future research on intergenerational equity.

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Edited by Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert

Global value chains (GVCs) are a key feature of the global economy in the 21st century. They show how international investment and trade create cross-border production networks that link countries, firms and workers around the globe. This Handbook describes how GVCs arise and vary across industries and countries, and how they have evolved over time in response to economic and political forces. With chapters written by leading interdisciplinary scholars, the Handbook unpacks the key concepts of GVC governance and upgrading, and explores policy implications for advanced and developing economies alike.
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Intergenerational Equity

Corporate and Financial Leadership

Julia M. Puaschunder

Exploring a topic of growing importance that has scant coverage, Intergenerational Equity brings to the fore a comprehensive discussion of intergenerational predicaments. The book explores how corporate and financial social responsibility can leverage intergenerational harmony through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Socially Responsible Investment (SRI).
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Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert

This introductory chapter provides an overview of what global value chains (GVCs) are, and why they are important. It presents a genealogy of the emergence of GVCs as a concept and analytical framework, and some reflections on more recent developments in this field. Finally, it describes the chapter organization of this Handbook along its five cross-cutting themes: mapping, measuring and analysing GVCs; governance, power and inequality; the multiple dimensions of upgrading and downgrading; how innovation, strategy and learning can shape governance and upgrading; and GVCs, development and public policy.

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Julia M. Puaschunder

The book has explored the innovative corporate and financial market potential to create value for society. It first described corporate and financial social responsibility in theoretical terms. The human foundation of responsibility and decision-making fallibility in responsibility were discussed. The international emergence of CSR governance was outlined in the case of the UNGC, which serves as a social responsibility international best practice guideline. CSR was portrayed as a means of conflict resolution in multi-stakeholder partnerships.

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Julia M. Puaschunder