The theory underlying indirect, multiplier effects of final consumption is detailed in this chapter. The classical example is the computation of the factors of production, first and foremost labor, embodied in final products. These embodiments are determined by taking the Leontief inverse of the matrix of direct input-output coefficients. Conditions on the input-output matrix which are both necessary and sufficient for the convergence of the multiplier effects are presented. Further multiplier effects due to household consumption are incorporated. The less labor is embodied in a product of an economy, the more productive the economy is in making that product. The relationship between input-output analysis and productivity measurement is detailed. The neoclassical approach of measuring total factor productivity by measuring input reductions using fixed prices has been criticized and alternative "effective" industry productivity growth rates have been presented in the input-output literature, but the two approaches will be demonstrated to be perfectly consistent. The analysis is also shown to encompass inefficiency measures and service productivity measures.
Thijs ten Raa
Thijs ten Raa
This chapter explains in painstaking detail the compilation of input, output, and input-output tables in the modern System of National Accounts framework. The treatments of valuation and margin issues are presented and the presentation is elucidated using the example of the Belgium accounts. At long last there is a detailed, accessible exposition of input-output compilation, authored by an eminent contributor to national accounting and input-output analysis.
An input-output coefficient may vary between observations because of objective or subjective differences, such as spatial differentiation and measurement errors, respectively. The literature is organized by methodology. The first methodology is deterministic error analysis. Upper and lower bounds on exogenous variables (input-output coefficients and final demand) transmit into upper and lower bounds on endogenous variables (output). The analysis is not straightforward because Leontief inversion is a non-linear operation. The second methodology is the econometric estimation of input-output coefficients using establishment data. The third methodology returns to the transmission of errors but now takes into account the canceling out of random errors, yielding sharper results. The expected value of the Leontief inverse is compared to the standard Leontief inverse of the expected input-output coefficients matrix. Systematic establishment differences are the subject of the fourth methodology, the full probability density function approach, which is essentially an aggregation procedure. The next two methodologies are new and promising. Monte Carlo simulations are extended to equilibrium analysis and Bayesian and entropy approaches address data treatment such as balancing.
Louis- Philippe Rochon and Sergio Rossi
Rethinking economics is a dramatically urgent necessity in light of the damages caused by the 2008 global financial crisis, resulting from the dominance of mainstream economics. Economic policies implemented since the early 1980s in many countries have induced lower economic growth, higher rates of involuntary unemployment and more income and wealth inequalities than in the previous three decades. A decade after the beginning of this crisis, policy is still unable to provide all citizens with greater economic comforts. This volume contributes to rethinking economics by providing readers at all levels with thoughtful contributions on a range of topics.
Edited by Louis-Philippe Rochon and Sergio Rossi
Policymakers have adopted two main antipoverty approaches in the United States. First, they have emphasized developing human capital, enabling workers to earn higher wages. Second, transfer programmes have provided a safety net for low-income citizens. This chapter advocates an alternative approach: using social insurance programmes to reduce poverty without creating negative incentives. It then looks at programmes focusing on three different age groups: (1) child allowances and paid parental leave, (2) unemployment and disability insurance and (3) old-age pensions. It finds these programmes effective in reducing poverty throughout the developed world, especially in Nordic countries with generous social insurance benefits.
Esteban Pérez Caldentey
This chapter argues that the unsatisfactory performance and dim future prospects of developing economies demand rethinking the theoretical foundations of development economics by fostering a dialogue and collaboration between structuralist and post-Keynesian economics. This collaboration can be centred on five themes: (i) a methodological approach based on historical trends and measurement; (ii) the characterization of the system of economic relations around the concepts of centre and periphery; (iii) the relation between income distribution, accumulation and economic growth; (iv) the central role of demand and (v) the role of the State.
As Keynes pointed out, economic decisions and activity under uncertainty do not tend automatically to full capacity utilization. Firms in general cannot but adapt their output to expected demand. This chapter invites us to rethink economic growth as the result of the factors that make the firms more or less optimistic regarding future aggregate demand. This is because expected demand is the driving force of output, time after time, and commands innovation and capital accumulation that, in the long run, allow for higher output in spite of the demographic constraint.
The global financial crisis that burst in 2008 seriously undermined economics from an epistemological, methodological as well as philosophical perspective. In this respect, the way we think and approach economics must be reconsidered afresh. In this chapter we will show, contrary to the normal evolution of mainstream economics, that there is an interest and even an urgency of opening economics to other disciplines. This is the case in particular with sociology, but also history, anthropology and political science. As we argue, pluralism allows for greater knowledge, which can only serve to reinforce the scientificity of economics.