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Historical Evolution, Analytical Categorisations and Institutional Challenges of Metropolitanisation
Edited by Alistair Cole and Renaud Payre
Hubert Heinelt and Karsten Zimmermann
Jennifer Kitson and Jonathan Bratt
Humans are at the forefront of twenty-first-century urban discourse, from pedestrian-oriented development to anthropogenic-caused climate change, yet few urban practitioners are meaningfully investigating the city through bodily, sensory experience. In this chapter we outline a framework, under the banner of “sensual urbanism,” for twinning aesthetic or sensory-based scholarship with urban theory and praxis. Our sensory approach to urban practices springs from the assertion that the sensing body perceives with other bodies, objects, and environs. This aesthetic stance stems from recognition of the world as material, affective, and dynamic, and from recognition of the human as one type of body among others participating in that world at the level of sensate experience. Importantly, these aesthetic concepts shape ethical and practical imperatives toward sustainable urban communities and environments. Quotidian methodologies serve as guide in exploring the nuanced social and psychological effects of city environs through methods of careful observation and documentation of the infra-ordinary, techniques of art and enchantment to make the ordinary strange, and experiential modes of walking and mapping the city. These aesthetic modes of urban experimentation are increasingly being reoriented through the senses in generative ways. A survey of contemporary urban sensory practices reveals sensible solutions to the making of just, happy, and sustainable cities.
The 2004 Amsterdam Declaration called for countries across Europe to take adequate measures to ensure that health provision is accessible, appropriate and sufficiently ‘culturally competent’ to meet the needs of migrants from diverse backgrounds, a call more recently reiterated in the WHO High Level Meeting on Refugee and Migrant Health held in Rome in November 2015. Meeting these health needs is vital, particularly given the large-scale migration currently experienced across the region, and the arrival of increasing numbers of families, unaccompanied children, pregnant women and elderly people with specific healthcare requirements. This chapter provides an overview of the broad array of factors facing migrants as they seek to access healthcare within Europe. Placing particular focus on the concept of cultural competency as it relates to interpretation, cultural mediation and healthcare training, the chapter examines what is known about good practice in migrant healthcare.
Gudbjorg Ottosdottir and Ruth Evans
This chapter discusses the situation of migrants with disability and chronic illness and their access to health, social care and welfare support in settlement countries. The links between disability and migration have been generally neglected in the literature to date; often disability is only referred to as a potential outcome of migration because of the association between poverty, poor health, housing and employment conditions among migrants. This chapter provides an overview of key conceptual understandings of disability and chronic illness and the policy context. The links between migration, disability, chronic illness and care support are complex, due to shortfalls in existing knowledge and the lack of policy engagement with asylum-seekers and refugees with disability and chronic illness, despite their often high care needs. The chapter pays particular attention to the situation of asylum-seekers with disability or chronic illness who often have limited entitlements to health, social care and welfare support, drawing on our empirical research on disability, HIV and caring relations among asylum-seeking and refugee families in the UK. Such families face major barriers in accessing appropriate health, social care and welfare support. The unmet care needs of disabled asylum-seekers also impact on informal family carers, including children and young adults, whose substantial caring responsibilities, combined with their restricted entitlements to support, affect their wellbeing, education and transitions into adulthood.
Lorena Núñez Carrasco
Literature on issues relating to end-of-life care for migrants has been relatively limited, and what exists has been produced mostly in the Global North. In the Global South, not only there is a lack of formal and integrated responses to support end-of-life needs, but also a lack of literature that reflects on the particular needs faced by migrant populations. This chapter examines the situation of sick and dying migrants in South Africa, who are living in contexts characterised by high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, displacement, illegality, lack of social protection and poverty. The chapter explores the symbolic, emotional and material resources they mobilise and the role played by various actors providing end-of-life care to migrants. Central to the assistance provided are the collective efforts to make the return home possible. Despite such efforts, some migrants do ultimately die away from home. The chapter therefore also identifies the actors involved in managing a migrant’s death in a foreign country and examines their role in organising funerals and burials or an eventual repatriation of a body. Overall, this work focuses on the agents’ strategies to deal with the material, cultural, spiritual and practical needs that arise from sickness to avoid and to manage an eventual death out of place or far from home.