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Colin C. Williams and Ioana A. Horodnic

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Dependent Self-Employment

Theory, Practice and Policy

Colin C. Williams and Ioana A. Horodnic

Dependent self-employment is widely perceived as a rapidly growing form of precarious work conducted by marginalised lower-skilled workers subcontracted by large corporations. Unpacking a comprehensive survey of 35 European countries, Colin C. Williams and Ioana Alexandra Horodnic map the lived realities of the distribution and characteristics of dependent self-employment to challenge this broad and erroneous perception.
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Colin C. Williams and Ioana A. Horodnic

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Edited by Bruce A. Seaman and Dennis R. Young

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Joseph J. Cordes and Katherine Coventry

The activities of nonprofit organizations are increasingly subject to performance evaluation. This chapter discusses the possibilities and limitations of using social benefit cost analysis as a framework for measuring nonprofit performance. Cost–benefit Analysis (CBA) and the closely related methodology of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) have become increasingly common means of evaluating the outcomes of a wide range of government regulations and public spending. Because there is considerable overlap between the outcomes that CBA is intended to measure and those that are the focus of a social return on investment (SROI) analysis, CBA offers a potentially useful framework for assessing non- profit performance. One pay-off from undertaking a CBA is that monetizing outcomes produces a single money metric that can facilitate comparisons among different program impacts. This feature of CBA, however, is also controversial, and both practical and conceptual objections have been raised to the monetization of nonprofit outcomes.

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Woods Bowman, Thad Calabrese and Elizabeth Searing

The nonprofit charitable sector owns more than $3.3 trillion of assets – resources used in the provision of goods and services. Here, we describe the various types of assets used by nonprofits, and how these assets are distributed among industries. We then outline theories about asset composition in the nonprofit sector; as the sector changes and increasingly reflects the entrepreneurial spirit of social enterprise, theories about asset composition also are changing. Nonprofit organizations have unique asset ownership issues. Specifically, nonprofits own privileged assets – those resources that nonprofits might be unable to alter; restricted assets – those resources that donors limit to use or time; and endowments – those investments that are expected to generate further revenues for the nonprofit. Research on nonprofit assets is limited by both positive and normative elements. On the one hand, data are of limited availability; on the other, asset accumulation in nonprofits is widely viewed with skepticism.

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Marc Jegers

A nonprofit organization’s capital structure is defined as the amount of own funds (equity) compared with debt. The different components of equity (internal and external sources) and categories of debt (market debt and non-market debt) are discussed, as well as the diversification (and its measurement) of funding sources, and their respective implicit or explicit costs. Cost of equity and cost of debt are shown not to be the only determinants of capital structure (as they would imply an all equity capital structure): other relevant mechanisms such as equity constraints, potential agency costs between board and management, and borrowing constraints may also play a role. The available empirical results are discussed, as well as still existing gaps in our theoretical and empirical knowledge.

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Teresa D. Harrison and Renée A. Irvin

This chapter delineates a framework for judging the usefulness of collaborative strategy in the nonprofit/nongovernmental sector. Collaboration among nonprofit organizations is often promoted as the dominant strategy for operating under severe resource constraints. Ignoring the influence of competitive forces while promoting preferred collaborative strategies, however, can lead to recommendations for nonprofits that are well intentioned yet impractical. This chapter introduces benefits and potential detriments of both competition and collaboration within the nonprofit industry structure. Because many nonprofit goods are collective, society often pools resources in order to provide these services. These are also the topic areas where we often see duplication of services. However, collaboration is unlikely to occur owing to the separation between funding and direct outcomes. This chapter is therefore intended to inform funders and policy makers how to determine the best situations in which to foster either collaboration or competition among nonprofit organizations.

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Salvatore Alaimo

Nonprofit organizations in the United States contract out for services annually for an estimated total of more than $1 trillion, and contract management has grown as a profession, yet this activity has not garnered much attention from researchers and scholars. The purpose of this research is to help establish a research agenda and raise management concerns for this activity driven by performance, legal, social, economic, political and ethical implications. It examines examples of nonprofits contracting out for services, the dynamics of those contractual relationships, and fiscal year data from 22 945 501(c)(3) nonprofit organizations. Types of services contracted, their cost, subsector trends, and the impacts of organizational size and specialization are revealed. Recommendations for nonprofit management practice and suggestions for how researchers and scholars can fill the existing gaps in our knowledge are discussed.

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Edited by Bruce A. Seaman and Dennis R. Young