This chapter discusses how research can be part of a social action agenda to build new economies. This research is based on collaborations between researchers and research participants, and involves three interwoven strategies. The first focuses on developing new languages of economy; the second, on decentring economic subjectivity; and the third, on collective actions to consolidate and build economic initiatives. The chapter illustrates how these strategies feature in three research projects. The first project was based in the Philippines and involved working with an NGO and two municipalities to pilot pathways for endogenous economic development. The second project was based in the US Northeast and used participatory mapping techniques to reveal the use and stewardship of marine resources. The third project was based in Australia and focused on environmentally sustainable and socially and economically just forms of manufacturing. These projects resulted in collective actions that created new economic options.
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Jenny Cameron and Katherine Gibson
Isaac Lyne and Anisah Madden
This chapter looks at social enterprise through a lens inspired by community economies and post-development. Without refuting that any trading enterprise must take form in one way or another, the authors look beyond essentialist models towards the embodiment of ‘social enterprising’; a term capturing various processes and intuitions that enact the social through bold economic experiments and that help multispecies communities to live well together. ‘Decolonial love’ and Buddhist teachings of ‘loving kindness’ (Mettā) are mobilized as a way of framing context in Eastern Cambodia and a University Town in Central Canada. Practices of mundane maintenance also offer an alternative to the developmental discourse premised on innovation, while a ‘reparative stance’ and attention to small narratives helps avoid undue pessimism about the significance of this mundane work.
Edited by J. K. Gibson-Graham and Kelly Dombroski
Edited by Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert
Stefano Ponte, Gary Gereffi and Gale Raj-Reichert
This introductory chapter provides an overview of what global value chains (GVCs) are, and why they are important. It presents a genealogy of the emergence of GVCs as a concept and analytical framework, and some reflections on more recent developments in this field. Finally, it describes the chapter organization of this Handbook along its five cross-cutting themes: mapping, measuring and analysing GVCs; governance, power and inequality; the multiple dimensions of upgrading and downgrading; how innovation, strategy and learning can shape governance and upgrading; and GVCs, development and public policy.
The Competitiveness Challenge for Secondary Capitals
Richard Jolly argues that the adoption of the SDGs as a universal agenda must bring an end to development studies focusing only on developing countries. Development should now be about all countries, an approach which can strengthen the analysis of problems in the North by learning from experience and analysis of countries in the South. Future priorities for development need to be framed by five fundamental objectives: universalism, sustainability, human development, inequality and human rights. These objectives are all embodied in the SDGs even if not always with deep commitment and Jolly briefly discusses each of them. The current neglect of human development contains a clear message, namely that human development theory, techniques and applications need to be better integrated into development teaching as well as into policy studies and consultancies. This would be an important step towards offsetting the narrow applications of neo-liberal economic teaching and policymaking and the narrowness of austerity policies being promoted across Europe today.
Deepak Nayyar observes that, during the past 25 years, there has been a significant increase in the share of developing countries in world output, manufacturing and trade. This catch up, in aggregates, has been driven by economic growth. But the process is characterized by uneven development and emerging divergences. There is an exclusion of regions, of countries within regions, of regions within countries, and of people, leading to increasing divergences within the developing world. Asia led the process, while Latin America stayed roughly where it was, and Africa experienced regress. Nayyar formulates two interlinked hypotheses. Economic growth (catch-up) is essential for reducing inequality (between and within countries), but at the same time it will be unsustainable without reducing inequality (within countries). He concludes that catch up can reduce inequality. If it does not, there will be no catch up.
Rolph van der Hoeven
Rolph van der Hoeven reviews (drivers of) processes of growing income inequality and what kind of challenges these pose for the post 2015 development agenda and the SDGs. He judges the compromise text of goal 10 on inequality too weak to be meaningful for proper implementation. Moreover van der Hoeven argues that active involvement of civil society is necessary. Elements of a new global Social Contract should include the right to development and the basic elements thereof in the form of non-discrimination, participation and accountability and introduce a global social floor, which is financially possible, but where currently political will is lacking. A revitalized form of global governance, where the coherence, at national and international level between social, economic and environmental sustainable policies, is strengthened, thus allowing developing countries to strive for necessary structural transformation. This could take the form of a Global Economic Coordination Council.