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Edited by Attila Varga and Katalin Erdős
Katalin Erdős and Attila Varga
Harvey Goldstein, Verena Radinger-Peer and Sabine Sedlacek
Research universities fill a variety of roles within contemporary society (Goldstein et al., 1995). Arguably the most important role has been providing advanced education to a segment of the population so that they have the requisite know-how to enter the professions. A second has been to generate knowledge through research that leads to scientific progress over time and indirectly often leads to productivity growth in the economy. These have been the traditional missions of research universities since their founding in the late nineteenth century.
Yuzhuo Cai, Po Yang and Anu Lyytinen
The literature on the role of universities in regional innovation systems mainly deals with research universities, for example, with an emphasis on knowledge transfer (Anatan, 2015). This is also the case in the Chinese context (Cai, 2018). In recent years, the importance of non-research universities in regional development and innovation has been increasingly recognized (Taylor et al., 2008). Among a small volume of studies exploring the role of universities of applied science (UASs), or non research universities, in the process of regional innovation, a constant challenge has been that of applying appropriate theoretical or analytical frameworks. Currently, most studies in this field apply theoretical insights originally developed for under standing the relationship between research universities and regional innovation systems. The most commonly used frameworks are, for instance, the Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008; Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 1995, 1997) for analysing the UASs and industry links (Yang et al., 2016), and the ‘five pathways to an entrepreneurial university’ (Clark, 1998) for understanding the organizational responses of UASs to the emerging demands of regional development (Lyytinen, 2011).
Knowledge, Markets and the State
Cristiano Antonelli and Alessandra Colombelli
This chapter explores the knowledge cost function, the study of which makes possible important progress in grasping the determinants of the large variance in the cost of innovation across firms. The amount of external knowledge and internal stocks of knowledge that firms can access and use in the generation of new technological knowledge helps firms reduce the costs of innovation. The empirical section is based upon companies listed on the financial markets in the UK, Germany, France and Italy for the period 1995–2006 for which information about patents have been gathered. The econometric analysis of the costs of innovation knowledge considers the unit costs of patents alongside R & D expenditure and the stock of internal and external knowledge for each firm. The results confirm that the stock of internal knowledge and access to external knowledge play key roles in assessing the actual capability of each firm to generate new technological knowledge.
Cristiano Antonelli and Agnieszka Gehringer
This chapter shows how and why the use of external knowledge is necessary to complement the recombinant generation of new knowledge. When access to external knowledge occurs at costs below the social value of knowledge, firms benefit from pecuniary knowledge externalities and are actually able to introduce productivity-enhancing innovations. The empirical evidence on 20 OECD countries confirms that the growth of total factor productivity is negatively associated with the costs of knowledge. Total factor productivity thus increases faster where and when the costs of knowledge are lower.
Cristiano Antonelli and Gianluigi Ferraris
This chapter elaborates an agent-based simulation model (ABM) to explore the endogenous long-term dynamics of knowledge externalities. ABMs, as a form of artificial cliometrics, allow analysis of the effects of the reactivity of firms caught in out-of-equilibrium conditions, combined with endogenous knowledge externalities stemming from the levels of knowledge connectivity of the system. The simulation results show the working of endogenous knowledge externalities as well as their powerful effects. At the micro-level, the reactions of firms caught in out-of-equilibrium conditions yield successful effects in the form of productivity-enhancing innovations only in the presence of high levels of knowledge connectivity and strong pecuniary knowledge externalities. At the meso-level, the introduction of innovations changes the structural characteristics of the system in terms of knowledge connectivity that affect the availability of knowledge externalities. Endogenous centrifugal and centripetal forces continually reshape the structure of the system and its knowledge connectivity. At the macro-system level, an out-of-equilibrium process leads to a step-wise increase in productivity combined with non-linear patterns of output growth characterized by significant oscillations typical of the long waves in Schumpeterian business cycles.
The notion of endogenous innovation as the outcome of the creative response of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions is the cornerstone of the new evolutionary complexity. This chapter explores the role of the reactivity of firms to out-of-equilibrium conditions and of knowledge governance in assessing the chances that creative responses actually take place as an alternative to adaptive responses. It implements a systemic frame able to show that: i) the quality of knowledge governance is a determinant in making the response of firms creative rather than adaptive; and ii) the levels of firms’ reactivity enhance the rates of introduction of innovations and increase total factor productivity.