The Lisbon Treaty consolidated, clarified and shifted the division of European Union competences in matters of criminal law. These are the developments that this chapter explores. Starting with the legal framework introduced by the Lisbon treaty, the chapter lays down both the conferred competences and the legal limits to them. The chapter then turns to the specifics of the Union’s procedural, institutional and substantive competences, elaborating upon the interplay between the competences in law and jurisprudence. To augment those parts of the legal texts that are not exhaustive, the chapter concludes by reflecting on the Court of Justice’s post-Lisbon jurisprudence on criminal competences, in which the Court has been attuning its doctrines to the challenges arising from the Lisbon legal framework for criminal justice.