A Commentary on the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Protocols
Wouter Vandenhole, Gamze Erdem Türkelli and Sara Lembrechts
Daniela Širinić and Josip Šipić
This chapter focusses on age differences in partisanship and party–voter congruence, explains whether those parties that manage to get young people to vote, and with whom the young identify, can articulate and aggregate their supporters’ preferences. The analysis shows that while the young are less likely to identify with political parties compared to older citizens, more than half of young voters report to be close to political parties. There are no large differences in party–voter policy agreement among the selected age groups. There is no evidence to suggest that young voters are less represented by their preferred parties compared to other age groups; in fact, overall levels of policy representation for all citizens are quite satisfactory. In addition, we were interested in identifying whether different parties perform better with respect to two age groups. The findings suggest that niche parties, and ideologically distinctive parties attract more young partisans, but also that parties successfully balance heterogeneous requests from different age groups, and they all perform their representative roles quite well.
Dana Halevy, Dorota Lepianka and Arianna Santero
This chapter explores effects of national contexts (Israeli, Italian and Dutch) on the stratification processes of foreign nationals (migrants) in family reunification and family support policies. The importance of stratification differs by country and policy area. While provenance determines migrants’ access to state territory in Israel, residential status and economic utility are more significant in conditioning migrants’ social rights in the Netherlands and in Italy. Also, the desirability of migrants per country is important. In Israel, provenance is understood as common descent; in Italy and in the Netherlands, the provenance of the migrant is evaluated in the light of their political, economic or cultural proximity. Despite the EU embeddedness of Italy and the Netherlands and the integrative EU policies, differences exist between the two countries driven by their migration, employment and welfare regimes. Future research should address the disadvantaged position of immigrant women for their unequal access to family reunion and family entitlements, the gendered division of care responsibilities within the household and the vulnerability risks for immigrant children.
Edited by Trudie Knijn and Manuela Naldini
Andrea Krizsán and Birte Siim
This chapter addresses the divergence and convergence of the framings of gender equality in nationalist and nativist discourses in the 2014 EP elections. It compares how representatives of populist radical-right (PRR) parties in Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain, frame gender equality and family issues in relation to migration and mobility in their electoral campaigns for the EP and during the first months of the 2014–18 parliamentary cycle. Gender and family issues are part of the programmes, campaigns and statements of the populist radical right, less prominently in the Nordic countries but quite centrally in the East, Central and Southern European countries as well as Germany. The analysis shows how rather than using similar gender and family frames, gender and family issues are instrumentalized to serve various exclusive forms of nationalism, anti-colonialist claims, or nationalist demographic sustainability arguments.
Trudie Knijn and Manuela Naldini
This introductory chapter summarizes the book and puts in in the perspective of the extent to which EU citizenship is different for women and men, for the young and the old, for those who stay in their own country and for those who move within the European Union. It introduces diverse aspects of EU citizenship ranging among the political citizenship of young Europeans, the civil and social rights of migrant care workers, reproductive rights and variations in family law among member states, and EU gender politics and policies. It signals a remarkable and paradoxical tendency towards expanding the right to family life, exemplified by recognition of family diversity by the European Court for Human Rights and EU law, which have more recently substantially reduced the autonomy of national jurisdiction in not granting the right to family life to ‘other’ types of family forms, and the current process of increasing family dependency because of limited social citizenship rights for non-wage workers.