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Implementing Sustainable Development Goals in Europe

The Role of Political Entrepreneurship

Edited by Charlie Karlsson and Daniel Silander

This unique book expertly analyses European political entrepreneurship in relation to the European Union’s approach towards the Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development strategy. It explores the role of European political entrepreneurs in shaping, influencing and realising the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals. Chapters examine EU actors in the context of numerous development goals to assess how political entrepreneurship challenges traditional EU institutions and promotes visionary activity.
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Simona Leonelli and Francesca Masciarelli

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Entrepreneurial Personality and Small Business Management

Is there a Narcissist in Every Successful Entrepreneur?

Simona Leonelli and Francesca Masciarelli

Entrepreneurial Personality and Small Business Management offers a comprehensive analysis with theoretical and empirical grounding for understanding how entrepreneurial personality shapes small business outcomes. It explores why entrepreneurs act differently when facing similar situations and why some are more successful than others. This book represents an important step towards the development of a more complete understanding of the entrepreneur’s role in a small firm.
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Simona Leonelli and Francesca Masciarelli

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Edited by Marc Pradel-Miquel, Ana B. Cano-Hila and Marisol García Cabeza

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Social Innovation and Urban Governance

Citizenship, Civil Society and Social Movements

Edited by Marc Pradel-Miquel, Ana B. Cano-Hila and Marisol García Cabeza

Presenting social innovation initiatives that emerged from organized citizenry in Southern European cities, this book explores the response to austerity policies implemented after the 2008 economic crisis. Chapters look at the common aim of these initiatives in responding to social needs and challenging social exclusion.
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Edited by David Billis and Colin Rochester

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Lars Fuglsang and Jørn Kjølseth Møller

In this chapter we develop a framework for analysing the challenge of dealing with innovation in hybrid public services. The main objective of the chapter is to analyse how hybridity can lead to innovation. Hybrid organisations are defined by the literature as organisations that combine multiple organisational identities and forms (Battilana and Lee, 2014), multiple institutional logics (Jay, 2013; Battilana and Lee, 2014) or sector principles (Billis, 2010). For the purpose of this chapter we define hybrid organisations as organisations that combine two or more institutional logics. An institutional logic is a socially constructed pattern of cultural symbols and material practices by which individuals and organisations provide meaning to their daily activity (Thornton et al., 2012, p. 2). For organisations, logics may translate into organisational ‘principles’ (Billis, 2010) or rules of the game. In this chapter we use logics and principles as almost interchangeable concepts but for us the overarching phenomenon is logics. The example of hybridity we analyse in this chapter is the growing ‘servitisation’ of public services. Servitisation we understand as a new institutional logic that leads public services to emphasise user-centric innovation approaches. Servitisation and the user-centric logic represent a move towards market sector principles and therefore an increase in sector hybridity.

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Benjamin Huybrechts, Julie Rijpens, Aurélie Soetens and Helen Haugh

Hybrid organisations are ‘organizations that combine institutional logics in unprecedented ways’ (Battilana and Dorado, 2010, p. 1419; Scott, 2001); they thus bring together logics from different, and often conflicting, fields into a singular organisational form. Social enterprises, for example, are typical hybrids that combine economic, social and environmental goals (Battilana and Lee, 2014; Billis, 2010; Doherty et al., 2014) and have been found to operate successfully in diverse sectors such as microfinance (Battilana and Dorado, 2010), fair trade (Huybrechts, 2012) and work integration (Pache and Santos, 2013). Although exploiting business methods to address social or environmental problems might suggest an organisational model that combines the best of both worlds, categorical confusion has been found to limit an organisation’s access to resources and negatively impact upon long-term survival (Tracey et al., 2011). Hybridity in organisations is not a new phenomenon (Billis, 2010), but interest in innovative organisational models that facilitate the achievement of double, or triple, bottom lines has recently flourished in response to global sustainability challenges (Hoffman et al., 2012). Hybrid organisations, however, face legitimacy challenges in that they are: (1) difficult to categorise within established organisational taxonomies (Aldrich and Fiol, 1994; Suchman, 1995); and (2) held to account to multiple institutional demands by audiences that use different and possibly contradictory legitimation criteria (Kraatz and Block, 2008). In turn the credibility of their claims of commitment to different sets of standards may be deemed to be unconvincing. Securing the conferment of legitimacy from stakeholders is therefore an important challenge facing hybrid organisations. Previous research, however, has not investigated the activities required to build legitimacy when an organisational form bridges two or more institutional categories.

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Johan Gärde

The organisational life of faith communities and religious congregations is changing in post-secular environments with new interactions, opportunities for collaboration and social contracts between the public and private sectors and civil society organisations (secular and religious). Religious communities with shrinking congregations and faithbased organisations (FBOs) in a post-secular environment are developing strategies for networking and collaboration with the public and private sectors. They are utilising a new discourse of solidarity and inclusion, which also attracts a larger public that goes beyond the shrinking constituencies of their own members. Collaboration has been accompanied by the growth of hybridity and hybrid organisations. Billis (2010) suggests that this occurs when an organisation from one sector, for example the civil society/third sector, adopts the different approaches and principles of the public and/or the private sector. As this chapter will show, hybrid organisational forms can bring with them the prospect of answers to difficult problems of communities and welfare. But they can also present their own inherent problems when the different principles become uncomfortable partners. I shall shortly illustrate this in a personal example.