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Telework in the 21st Century

An Evolutionary Perspective

Edited by Jon C. Messenger

Technological developments have enabled a dramatic expansion and also an evolution of telework, broadly defined as using ICTs to perform work from outside of an employer’s premises. This volume offers a new conceptual framework explaining the evolution of telework over four decades. It reviews national experiences from Argentina, Brazil, India, Japan, the United States, and ten EU countries regarding the development of telework, its various forms and effects. It also analyses large-scale surveys and company case studies regarding the incidence of telework and its effects on working time, work-life balance, occupational health and well-being, and individual and organizational performance.
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Capitalism in Transformation

Movements and Countermovements in the 21st Century

Edited by Roland Atzmüller, Brigitte Aulenbacher, Ulrich Brand, Fabienne Décieux, Karin Fischer and Birgit Sauer

Presenting a profound and far-reaching analysis of economic, ecological, social, cultural and political developments of contemporary capitalism, this book draws on the work of Karl Polanyi, and re-reads it for our times. The renowned authors offer key insights to current changes in the relations between the economy, politics and society, and their ecological and social effects.
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Edited by Robin Hickman, Beatriz Mella Lira, Moshe Givoni and Karst Geurs

With social inequity in urban spaces becoming an increasing concern in our modern world, The Elgar Companion to Transport, Space and Equity explores the relationships between transport and social equity. Transport systems and infrastructure investment can lead to inequitable travel behaviours, with certain socio-demographic groups using particular parts of the transport system and accessing particular activities and opportunities.
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Benoît Godin

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Benoît Godin

The next stage in the study of technological change comes from an economic historian. In 1942, at the suggestion of Sumner Slichter, Rupert Maclaurin, Professor in the Department of Economics at MIT, organized a conference on “the role of technological research in our economy” at the 54th annual meeting of the American Economic Association. According to Maclaurin, “All [participants at the conference] agreed that full employment and an expanding economy are desirable post-war objectives and that considerably more analysis needs to be made of the kind of entrepreneurial motivation and the kind of environmental conditions necessary to achieve an industrial renaissance in manufacturing” (Maclaurin, 1942: 232). The year before, Maclaurin had initiated the first scholarly research program on technological change. In 1941, he obtained a five-year grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to study the “factors and conditions responsible for technological change”. At the time there was almost no scholarly literature on the subject. Technological change was studied, when it was studied at all, in terms of unemployment and labor productivity. Maclaurin’s program of research was entirely different. He was interested in the process leading to technological change, namely the steps necessary to bring an invention to the market. According to Maclaurin, “although economists have long been interested in technological change, there has been very little investigation of the factors influencing the rate of technological progress in particular industries” (Bright and Maclaurin, 1943: 429). “Until quite recently”, stated Maclaurin:

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Benoît Godin

Having defined technological innovation as the commercialization of goods, what remains is to study how technological innovation happens. Two concepts serve this purpose - process and system - traces of which are present in the policy documents studied in Chapter 7. The one - process - postulates that technological innovation starts with pure science. The other - system - is a contestation of this belief, insisting that technological innovation is a whole and scientists are only one part of it, and certainly not the initiating actors. These two concepts define two approaches that serve to make sense of technological innovation. I distinguish between approach and theory here. Theories of technological innovation are discussed in the next chapter. Here I document the genealogy of the approaches that guide the theorists. An approach is a conceptual framework or discursive and programmatic device that provides a vision and a storyline or narrative to interpret the world (Braun, 1999; Fisher, 2003).

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Benoît Godin

Technological change is a term that allows for broad conceptualization. For example, in the 1950s, surveys of technological change (Brozen, 1951b) were similar to surveys of the history of technology (Clemen, 1951) and, in several ways, similar to surveys of technology and social change (Allen, 1959). They covered the same breadth (a broad definition of technological change) and surveyed the same authors (historians, economists and sociologists). But at the same time, concepts can be made more specific to serve disciplinary boundaries, as economists did. The economists’ representation of technological change is the standard representation of technology: industrial techniques or processes, and their effects on technological progress - employment and productivity, efficiency and output, growth and national income. In this context, what representation of technological change did the social sciences and the humanities espouse during and after the econometric turn? To some extent, historians of technology share the representation of economists (for example, Mumford, 1961; Landes, 1965), as do writers on industrial relations and management (for example, Smith, 1935; Rieger, 1942; Dunlop, 1962; Somers et al., 1963; Bright, 1963, 1970, 1973). They are followed by public organizations. However, some other disciplines developed a different representation, even a more critical one. This Interlude studies some of the representations other than the economic.

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The Invention of Technological Innovation

Languages, Discourses and Ideology in Historical Perspective

Benoît Godin

This timely book provides an intellectual and conceptual history of a key representation of innovation: technological innovation. Tracing the history of the discourses of scholars, practitioners and policy-makers, and exploring how and why innovation became defined as technological, Benoît Godin studies the emergence of the term, its meaning, and its transformation and use over time.
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Benoît Godin

Technological innovation is only one of many kinds of innovation. It is also one of the many terms coined to make use of the concept of innovation. In recent years, the concept gave rise to a plethora of terms like social innovation, sustainable innovation, responsible innovation and the like as alternatives to industrial and technological innovation. I call these terms X-innovation. How can we make sense of this semantic extension? Why do these terms come into being? What drives people to coin new terms and what do they want to achieve? The story is one of appropriation and contestation. On one hand, people appropriate a word (innovation) for its value-laden character and because of what they can do with it. A word with such a polysemy as innovation is a multi-purpose word. It works in the public mind (imaginaries) and among policy-makers. It also contributes to scholars’ citation records. On the other hand, people contest a term (technological innovation) because of its hegemonic connotation. They coin alternative ones that often become a brand.

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Benoît Godin

In 1932, Harry Jerome claimed that “technological change” is “an uncultivated field” (Jerome, 1932: 33). Certainly, the term “technological change” was known to the scholars of the time and used sporadically. Yet technological change was not studied or theorized about. What does the term mean? Where does it come from, and when did the study of technological change begin? Economist Edwin Mansfield attributed the origin of the interest in technological change to the studies on productivity conducted at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) in the 1950s (Mansfield, 1972: 478; see also Terleckyj, 1980). To be sure, the NBER produced a whole series of studies in the 1950s on economic growth and productivity - two key terms of the time - but only a couple of studies on technological change per se. Moreover, the NBER’s representation of technological change in these few studies originates from the 1930s.