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Edited by Russell W. Belk, Giana M. Eckhardt and Fleura Bardhi

With the radical growth in the ubiquity of digital platforms, the sharing economy is here to stay. This Handbook explores the nature and direction of the sharing economy, interrogating its key dynamics and evolution over the past decade and critiquing its effect on society.
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Robert D. Hisrich and Veland Ramadani

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Entrepreneurial Marketing

A Practical Managerial Approach

Robert D. Hisrich and Veland Ramadani

One key for success for the entrepreneur is to obtain sales (revenue) and profits as quickly as possible upon launching the venture. Entrepreneurial Marketing, focuses on all the essential elements to successfully achieve these needed sales and revenues: identifying and selecting the market, determining the consumer needs cost effectively, executing the basic elements of the marketing mix (product, price, distribution, and promotion) and competing successfully in the domestic and global markets by implementing a sound marketing plan. The content is enhanced by numerous examples throughout.
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Björn Bjerke

Consumers have, to a large extent, become their own producers; they are more aware of marketing and are active in adding value to the products and experiences they want. By assessing customers as active agents rather than passive consumers, Björn Bjerke explores alternative ways of marketing for new businesses and social entrepreneurial ventures.
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Björn Bjerke

This chapter provides an introduction to the rest of the book. It does so by pointing out that it is necessary to act entrepreneurially in today’s world which contains so much genuine uncertainty. It also divides society into different sectors and entrepreneurs into different groups, highlighting the increasing existence and importance of social entrepreneurs. The chapter characterizes today’s society as postmodern and of a knowledge-type, where interpretive thinking has become important. The author’s opinion is presented, that entrepreneurs can only be defined as such in the beginning of new ventures, and that they are not particularly interested in growth and strategic issues. The chapter summarises the book’s focus on there being two alternative kinds of marketing in the beginning of three kinds of business and/or social ventures, before these ventures have reached any kind of clear and accepted form.

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Björn Bjerke

There are several kinds of entrepreneurial startups. Based on the difference between rational and bricoleurial startups, this chapter provides several models and interpretations of various entrepreneurial startups. It continues by discussing important concepts for the rest of the book, such as ‘market’, ‘customer’, ‘user’ and ‘value creation’. It ends by providing the principles for managerial and social phenomenological marketing for entrepreneurs, which is the very duality on which this whole book is based.

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Björn Bjerke

This chapter starts by presenting knowledge development of the subject of business entrepreneurship during the 300 years of its existence, starting by looking at it as an economic function and ending with today’s focus on understanding entrepreneurship by better understanding the customers. After separating entrepreneurship from enterprising, small business, innovation and self-development, the chapter discusses two views on the subject today, referred to as the limited and the more extended view, and ends by presenting the author’s opinion of the possibility of characterizing business entrepreneurs as people acting ‘as if’, and involving more parts of their bodies in the business than just their brains.

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Björn Bjerke

This chapter looks at leaders as a function in society, and tries to define the characteristic thoughts and behaviours of people trying to excel in pursuing leadership. It explores contextual theories of the leadership phenomenon and its results and effects, and the concept that understanding followers better leads to a clearer understanding of what leadership actually is. The chapter ends by categorising leaders as considering followers, versus understanding them as co-creators of leader-follower outcomes; this concept guides the rest of the book.

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Björn Bjerke

This chapter is about knowledge development of the subject of marketing. This development (as with the knowledge development of business entrepreneurship in Chapter 2, social entrepreneurship in Chapter 3 and leadership in Chapter 5) is presented in terms of stages, starting from explaining its function and moving towards developing a real understanding of customer and / or users. Furthermore, there is an extended discussion of marketing as being goods-dominant or service-dominant, and the chapter ends by exploring how to understand concepts such as market, customer, user and value creation.

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Björn Bjerke

Despite being a young academic subject, social entrepreneurship is surprisingly broad in its orientation. This chapter discusses its short history, the differences between social entrepreneurship in the public sector, the business sector and the citizen sector, its relationship to ‘place’ as opposite to ‘space’, the role it can play in local community development, and how it is related to citizen capital and governance.