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Richard T. Harrison, Claire M. Leitch and Maura McAdam
The past decade has seen an increase in scholarly interest and expansion of literature on the topic of entrepreneurial leadership. However, this field of research lacks definitional clarity and appropriate tools to assess its characteristics. This chapter presents a review of research published in this field from 2003 to 2014, with the goal of clarifying the state of knowledge in the area. It also aims to reveal the evolution of entrepreneurial leadership. A content analysis of the existing body of literature in 21 peer-reviewed journal articles focused on entrepreneurial leadership and was conducted using the analytical tool Leximancer. This analysis reveals important changes in the evolution of research in entrepreneurial leadership. Early articles often separated the terms ‘entrepreneurship’ and ‘leadership’ when describing the construct of entrepreneurial leadership. More recent articles have merged the terms into ‘entrepreneurial leadership’. In addition, a keyword analysis displayed the relevance of leadership styles, traits, characteristics and behaviors in both periods 2003_2009 and 2012_2014. Moreover, this study reveals that a number of journals had published articles on the topic of ‘entrepreneurial leadership’. Only three journals were represented more than once. Variation also applies to the authors who published in this research domain; only a few authors appeared with high frequency. Overall, the analysis suggests an increased cross-fertilization and convergence between the fields of entrepreneurship and leadership.
This chapter sets out to explore the field of leadership development and its emerging contribution to sustainable entrepreneurship; why there is a need to develop research and effective practices in this area, and how this might be achieved. It studies the questions of how organisations can generate entrepreneurial leadership for their longer-term sustainability; how they can develop a sustained culture of entrepreneurship; and how they can facilitate people into leadership roles, which enable continuing innovation, development and growth. The research is based on four case studies developed from research with entrepreneurial leaders in selected organisations. The leaders had founded or led their organisations for significant periods, and built them up to achieve a level of success, scale and structure. Their organisations include private, ‘for-profit’, community, and social enterprise organisations, but all have a strong sense of ‘community’ identity and sustainability. The interpretation of the cases revealed the importance of the leaders’ principles and ethical values in articulating a vision for what the organisation could achieve. They practised deep community involvement to build trust, by connecting with individuals, families and groups. There is continual scanning for needs and possibilities for social innovation to address problems and create multiple forms of value, connecting latent resources to enact opportunities. Their approach to leadership is distinctive, rather than imitative of other organisations, whilst finding and growing human talent and social capital to develop the organisation is seen as essential for the future.
Leon Schjoedt and Vicar S. Valencia
Entrepreneurs employ different resources and strategies in the process of creating new ventures, whether the venture is for profit or not for profit. These differences influence the new venture created. Some entrepreneurs create new-to-the-world ventures by invention or synthesis, whereas others create new ventures by extension or duplication. This means that entrepreneurs may be grouped by how they learn and how they employ their knowledge in the venture creation process. Based on how entrepreneurs learn and employ their knowledge, entrepreneurs may be categorized as entrepreneurial leaders or entrepreneurial managers, which is the topic of this chapter. To this end, the authors contribute to the burgeoning literature on entrepreneurship and leadership by emphasizing the distinction between entrepreneurial leaders and entrepreneurial managers based on their preferred learning style and use of knowledge: essentially, entrepreneurial leaders place importance on knowledge exploration, whereas entrepreneurial managers emphasize knowledge exploitation in the new venture creation process.
Afsaneh Bagheri and Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie
Entrepreneurial leadership studies have attempted to identify the competencies required by the leaders of new ventures as well as organizational leaders to successfully lead entrepreneurial activities. Prior research has also investigated the motivation to learn and develop entrepreneurial businesses. Yet, research is scarce on the competencies of entrepreneurial leaders and their motivation to learn and develop their personal entrepreneurial leadership competencies, essential for facing the challenges of successfully performing entrepreneurial tasks and roles in contexts other than entrepreneurial companies and small businesses. This chapter concentrates on examining entrepreneurial leadership and motivation to learn in a particular context that of university entrepreneurship clubs and projects. Specifically, the authors explore the challenges which the student leaders face in creating entrepreneurial ideas, recognizing entrepreneurial opportunities, marshaling essential resources and mobilizing a group to successfully fulfill a project’s objectives. Using a qualitative research method, they present the experience of 14 entrepreneurial student leaders, to explore their constant practices in learning and developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies and their motivations to learn and develop the competencies. The findings revealed two specific types of competencies: personal competencies (entrepreneurial leadership self-efficacy, love of challenges and versatility) and leadership competencies (creating a caring interpersonal relationship, employing an enabling task delegation approach and building self-efficacy of the group members). Furthermore, a combination of intrinsic (personal interest and self-development) and extrinsic factors (learning opportunities and programs and entrepreneurial leadership task demands and challenges) emerged as the influential motives driving the students to learn and develop these competencies.
Claire M. Leitch and Richard T. Harrison
R. Greg Bell and J. Lee Whittington
The skills needed to launch a new firm are different from those required to grow and sustain the firm over time. In this chapter the authors address this important issue by developing a framework that integrates the full-range model of leadership with a life-cycle approach to understanding the evolution and growth of threshold firms. they discuss how the various elements of the full-range model of leadership may be applied in each stage of a firm’s development. They also identify several research implications that emerge from this integrated framework.