This chapter discusses how responsible start-ups are met in the health sector. Through following three companies, Voco, Cora and Medicus, we acquire insight into the world of challenges the entrepreneurs have when they introduce their technology/service to the healthcare sector. Using institutional theory, we look at the regulative, normative and cognitive dimension of the institutional framework. We use the term ‘institutional wall’ to denote a dense network of formal laws and regulation, informal norms and knowledge and beliefs that act as barriers for the entrepreneurs to access the market. We find that while there is a positive development in the regulative dimension: both the regulative and the normative dimension are set up to favour larger companies. The founders’ responses to the cognitive dimension indicate a lack of belief in Norwegian technology and thus tough access to finance.
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Elin M. Oftedal and Lene Foss
Ella Henry and Léo-Paul Dana
This chapter draws together the social entrepreneurship, social capital and cultural capital literature to inform the analysis of a research project in New Zealand, that has incorporated Māori Indigenous researchers, a Māori social enterprise, and its local community facing extreme challenges. The authors argue that social enterprise delivers more than business activity, whether they are for-profit or non-profit. Indigenous social enterprise and social entrepreneurs also bring together Indigenous communities, to work collaboratively for cultural revitalisation and social change. Further, the chapter explores the role of Māori/Indigenous researchers, and Indigenous research methodologies, in contributing to that cultural revitalisation and social change. This case illustrates how social entrepreneurs and researchers, who share cultural capital (in this case, the shared values and world view of an Indigenous people), might work collaboratively to enhance the social capital of the enterprise, and the community.
Edited by Anne de Bruin and Simon Teasdale
Empowering the Patient
Edited by Tatiana Iakovleva, Elin M. Oftedal and John Bessant
Political Entrepreneurship for a Prosperous Europe
Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Daniel Silander and Brigitte Pircher
Promoting Growth and Welfare in Times of Crisis
Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Charlotte Silander and Daniel Silander
Joshua C. Hall, Robert A. Lawson and Saurav Roychoudhury
In this chapter we argue that the ability of people to freely trade, enter into contracts, and start businesses in a system of private property, and the rule of law are crucial for productive entrepreneurship. One measure of how freely individuals can engage in economic activity is the Economic Freedom of the World (EFW) index. After examining the economic policies that harm economic freedom and possibly entrepreneurship, we highlight the correspondence between economic freedom and a number of measures of entrepreneurship. We conclude with some thoughts regarding future research involving economic freedom and entrepreneurship. Keywords: Institutions, entrepreneurship, economic freedom
Robert F. Salvino Jr. and Michael Latta
Morality and economic actions may converge, but for this to be so over the long run, economic institutions, policies, and their desired outcomes cannot violate human nature—not simply because it is unjust, but because it is unnatural. Economists have grappled with incorporating human nature or behavior into their models, and economists are good at identifying incentives; but sometimes behavioral tendencies and incentives at play in everyday life do not make it into the models. We present a two-nation, two time-period model in which individual agents strive for happiness and prosperity under conditions of uncertainty regarding the behavior of unfamiliar domestic and foreign agents. We allow certain institutions to evolve over time and others individuals create through direct intention, both affecting behavior and the average level of wealth and happiness in society. We show how, in an open society with narrow institutional powers, seemingly conflicting ideals do not dominate moral and economic outcomes. The general premise of our model extends to policymaking and intended outcomes. Keywords: Morality, entrepreneurship, human nature