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Edited by Attila Varga and Katalin Erdős

The Handbook on Universities and Regional Development offers a comprehensive and up-to-date insight into how academic institutions spur their surroundings. The volume sheds light on universities as regional development actors from a historical perspective by introducing institutional changes and discussing the interrelatedness of society, business and academia. It provides detailed investigations on various knowledge transfer mechanisms to help understand the diverse ways through which ideas and intellectual property can flow between universities and businesses. Detailed case studies from three continents (Europe, Asia, and America) demonstrate the highly contextual nature of the interactions between academia, industry and government.
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Katalin Erdős and Attila Varga

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Harvey Goldstein, Verena Radinger-Peer and Sabine Sedlacek

Research universities fill a variety of roles within contemporary society (Goldstein et al., 1995). Arguably the most important role has been providing advanced education to a segment of the population so that they have the requisite know-how to enter the professions. A second has been to generate knowledge through research that leads to scientific progress over time and indirectly often leads to productivity growth in the economy. These have been the traditional missions of research universities since their founding in the late nineteenth century.

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Yuzhuo Cai, Po Yang and Anu Lyytinen

The literature on the role of universities in regional innovation systems mainly deals with research universities, for example, with an emphasis on knowledge transfer (Anatan, 2015). This is also the case in the Chinese context (Cai, 2018). In recent years, the importance of non-research universities in regional development and innovation has been increasingly recognized (Taylor et al., 2008). Among a small volume of studies exploring the role of universities of applied science (UASs), or non research universities, in the process of regional innovation, a constant challenge has been that of applying appropriate theoretical or analytical frameworks. Currently, most studies in this field apply theoretical insights originally developed for under standing the relationship between research universities and regional innovation systems. The most commonly used frameworks are, for instance, the Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008; Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 1995, 1997) for analysing the UASs and industry links (Yang et al., 2016), and the ‘five pathways to an entrepreneurial university’ (Clark, 1998) for understanding the organizational responses of UASs to the emerging demands of regional development (Lyytinen, 2011).

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Yasuyuki Motoyama

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From Innovation to Entrepreneurship

Connectivity-based Regional Development

Yasuyuki Motoyama

Innovation and entrepreneurship are often considered two sides of the same coin. But are the links between innovation and entrepreneurship as inextricable as we think? From Innovation to Entrepreneurship questions this seemingly interdependent relationship, highlighting the different requirements of innovation and entrepreneurship. This book disentangles theories of innovation and entrepreneurship, empirically revealing the overlaps and differences between them. Demonstrating that the pursuit of entrepreneurship is the key to economic development, Yasuyuki Motoyama explores the concept that people are at the heart of entrepreneurship ecosystems.
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Patrizio Bianchi, Sandrine Labory and Clemente Ruiz Durán

The beginning of the twenty-first century is turning out to be full of disruptions and challenges for economies and societies. Climate change, world population growth, migratory pressures, are pressing challenges; the financial crisis has had a dramatic effect and many economies have had difficulties in recovering their pre-crisis development level. Meanwhile, innovation and technological changes are accelerating, in various fields including genomics, nanotechnologies, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and big data, robotics and artificial intelligence, new materials, and others. ICTs, with the Internet of Things (IoT), the Cloud, big data, are allowing hyper-connection of people and objects and digitisation of production processes. The change induced is so disruptive that there is quite wide consensus that we are experiencing an industrial revolution, the fourth one. New means of production and new products are appearing and will continue doing so, changing individuals’ life in important aspects, namely economic, social and cultural.

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Yasuyuki Motoyama

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Transforming Industrial Policy for the Digital Age

Production, Territories and Structural Change

Edited by Patrizio Bianchi, Clemente R. Durán and Sandrine Labory

This book argues that digital globalization is inducing deep and productive transformations, making industrial policy necessary in order to reorientate development towards inclusive and more sustainable growth. The book also demonstrates that industrialization remains an important development process for emerging countries. Regarding the future of jobs, the authors show how the substitution of labour in automation is not inevitable since technology is also complementary to human capital. Policymakers should pay more attention to the new skills that will be required. A particular concern is is the rapid change in technology and business compared to institutions which take time to adapt. Territories have an important role to play in order to speed-up institutional adaptation, providing they can act coherently with the other levels of government.
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Maria Estela Ferreira

This chapter aims to illustrate the main outcomes and the characteristics and factors of the resilience of the footwear industry in the northern region of Portugal as performed in the last 30 years. This industry acts in a cluster located in a number of towns around Porto, within a maximum distance of 50 km from this city. Such cluster is responsible for more than 90 per cent of Portuguese footwear exports. Along the analyzed period, and among other difficulties, two main shocks are identified which the industry had to face: the full membership of China in the WTO, in 2001, which carried the delocalization of most foreign footwear companies, mainly to the Far East, and the sub-prime world crisis in 2008. The industry survived and surpassed these shocks thanks to a thorough preparedness sustained by the action of entrepreneurs, together with a strong and active association and a technological center, which provided management and technical support and strengthened links between them, stimulating coordinated actions. This chapter suggests, through a non-linear approach, that Portuguese footwear exports are about to reach the level they would have attained if China hadn’t joined the WTO.