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Edited by Robin Hickman, Beatriz Mella Lira, Moshe Givoni and Karst Geurs

With social inequity in urban spaces becoming an increasing concern in our modern world, The Elgar Companion to Transport, Space and Equity explores the relationships between transport and social equity. Transport systems and infrastructure investment can lead to inequitable travel behaviours, with certain socio-demographic groups using particular parts of the transport system and accessing particular activities and opportunities.
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Cities and Regions in Crisis

The Political Economy of Sub-National Economic Development

Martin Jones

This book offers a new geographical political economy approach to our understanding of regional and local economic development in Western Europe over the last twenty years. It suggests that governance failure is occurring at a variety of spatial scales and an ‘impedimenta state’ is emerging. This is derived from the state responding to state intervention and economic development that has become irrational, ambivalent and disoriented. The book blends theoretical approaches to crisis and contradiction theory with empirical examples from cities and regions.
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Martin Jones

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Gillian Bristow and Adrian Healy

The purpose of this concluding chapter is to draw together the key themes from the rich comparative analysis reported in this book, and to consider the wider implications for policy efforts to develop regional economic resilience. It highlights that a number of factors are positively associated with more resilient regions. These include more diverse, export-oriented economies with the presence of international companies. The experience of the crisis highlights the resilience risks of dependency on particular firms, sectors, markets and public-sector transfers. It also emphasises the dangers of making simplistic assumptions about the importance of particular factors to resilience outcomes. The different experiences of the crisis from the different European regions reported in this volume clearly highlight the important mediating role that is played by place-based characteristics.

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Uku Varblane and Urmas Varblane

This chapter explores the effect of the 2008_09 crisis on the region of North Estonia. The region was hit very hard owing to its high openness and dependence upon foreign trade. However, a swift and decisive national policy response helped foster very rapid recovery, with a radical reduction of public expenditures and accelerated utilisation of EU funds particularly important factors.

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Iwona Sagan and Grzegorz Masik

This chapter provides a case study of the Pomorskie region of Poland which exhibited strong resilience to the 2008_09 crisis. The chapter explores the reasons for the region’s economic resilience. The analysis highlights the importance of the relative resilience of the Polish economy as a whole, as well as the diversified economic structure of the Pomorskie region. The analysis also highlights the adaptability associated with the region’s flexible labour force and open society and economy.

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Edited by Gillian Bristow and Adrian Healy

The economic crisis of 2008-9 heralded the most severe economic downturn in the history of the European Union. Yet not all regions experienced economic decline and rates of recovery have varied greatly. This has raised new questions about what factors influence the economic resilience of regions. This book presents the results of an Applied Research Project conducted within the ESPON 2013 Programme and provides a detailed analysis of what made some European regions more resilient to the crisis than others.
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Veiko Sepp

This chapter explores the impact of the 2008_09 economic crisis on the Uusimaa region of Finland. It finds that whilst the region’s economy fared slightly better than Finland as a whole, the economic effects were significant, and it has undoubtedly struggled to recover. The crisis exposed the region’s high dependence upon Nokia which was advantageous when the company was leading the mobile phone market but a hindrance when its competitiveness declined. The higher proportion of public sector employment in Uusimaa provided some ballast in the face of this decline but not enough to prevent considerable output and employment decline. Whilst the strong welfare support system and long-term collective wage agreements have helped soften the impact of the crisis on incomes and wages by helping maintain domestic demand, they carry the risk of limiting the adaptability of businesses and workers in relation to structural change.

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Adrian Healy

This chapter explores the effects of the 2008_09 crisis on South West Ireland. The analysis shows that the region was hit hard but fared relatively better than many other parts of Ireland. The analysis shows that underpinning the relative resilience of South West Ireland is the city of Cork. Here locational advantages, combined with the value of a vibrant urban centre, export-oriented firms and a strong base of universities and research institutes linked to the local economy, served to provide a strong foundation for economic resilience relative to the Irish economy as a whole. The region has also benefited from national policies seeking to promote the economic growth of the Irish economy.

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Rüdiger Wink, Laura Kirchner, Florian Koch and Daniel Speda

This chapter describes the experiences in the region of Stuttgart during and after the global financial and economic crisis of 2008_09. The region was severely negatively hit by the crisis but achieved a fast recovery, notably by increasing exports to China. While the region faced huge problems to recover after a recession in the early 1990s, by 2014 Stuttgart had reached a new peak of employment. The reasons for this successful recovery are mainly rooted in the competitiveness and innovation capabilities of manufacturing industries and in the region’s institutional thickness. Despite the economic success, however, risks remain when considering the growing dependence of the regional economy on the automotive industry and export demand.