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Edited by Attila Varga and Katalin Erdős
Katalin Erdős and Attila Varga
Harvey Goldstein, Verena Radinger-Peer and Sabine Sedlacek
Research universities fill a variety of roles within contemporary society (Goldstein et al., 1995). Arguably the most important role has been providing advanced education to a segment of the population so that they have the requisite know-how to enter the professions. A second has been to generate knowledge through research that leads to scientific progress over time and indirectly often leads to productivity growth in the economy. These have been the traditional missions of research universities since their founding in the late nineteenth century.
Yuzhuo Cai, Po Yang and Anu Lyytinen
The literature on the role of universities in regional innovation systems mainly deals with research universities, for example, with an emphasis on knowledge transfer (Anatan, 2015). This is also the case in the Chinese context (Cai, 2018). In recent years, the importance of non-research universities in regional development and innovation has been increasingly recognized (Taylor et al., 2008). Among a small volume of studies exploring the role of universities of applied science (UASs), or non research universities, in the process of regional innovation, a constant challenge has been that of applying appropriate theoretical or analytical frameworks. Currently, most studies in this field apply theoretical insights originally developed for under standing the relationship between research universities and regional innovation systems. The most commonly used frameworks are, for instance, the Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008; Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 1995, 1997) for analysing the UASs and industry links (Yang et al., 2016), and the ‘five pathways to an entrepreneurial university’ (Clark, 1998) for understanding the organizational responses of UASs to the emerging demands of regional development (Lyytinen, 2011).
Connectivity-based Regional Development
Edited by Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Iréne Bernhard
Jitendra Parajuli and Kingsley E. Haynes
Broadband internet is considered an important determinant of economic growth and development. A number of studies have examined the impact of broadband on migration, firm location and economic growth. However, the relationship between broadband infrastructure and new firm formation in the USA has not been sufficiently described. This chapter fills that gap by empirically examining the relationship between broadband internet and new firm formation. It is found that single-unit firm births and the provision of broadband are positively and significantly related across almost all industry sectors in the USA. However, the impact of broadband provisioning on new firm formation is sensitive to agglomeration and aggregate and growth patterns of states and economic sectors.
Viroj Jienwatcharamongkhol and Sam Tavassoli
It is well known that exporters are productive firms, but the source of their productivity is left unexplained. This chapter aims to endogenize the productivity heterogeneity of exporting firms by incorporating innovation in a structural model framework. In doing so, we close the gap between the innovation–productivity and productivity–export literature. Two waves of the Swedish Community Innovation Survey (CIS) are merged. This allows for a setup that takes into account the links from innovation input to innovation output and also from innovation output to productivity and exports. The main findings highlight that exporters are productive firms with innovation output in the past, which in turn was driven by prior R & D and other innovation activity investments.