Open access

The entry discusses the inclusion/exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and minority sexuality and gender people (LGBT*) and showcases many social and solidarity economy (SSE) organisations that operate in different regions of the world to support their rights. The entry emphasises that the wider SSE sector is better placed than the commercial sector to support the work and social inclusion of LGBT* people, due to its commitment to individuals' well-being, to communities and to the environment.

  • Alexander, M. Jacqui (2005) Pedagogies of Crossing: Meditations on Feminism, Sexual Politics, Memory and the Sacred. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

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  • Badgett, M.V.L. 2014. The Economic Cost of Stigma and the Exclusion of LGBT People: A Case Study of India. World Bank. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/527261468035379692/pdf/940400WP0Box380usion0of0LGBT0People.pdf.

  • Badgett, M.V.L., S. Nezhad, C. Waaldijk and Y. van der Meulen Rodgers. 2014. The Relationship between LGBT Inclusion and Economic Development: An Analysis of Emerging Economies. Los Angeles, CA: US Agency For International Development (USAID) and Williams Institute (UCLA).

  • Badgett, M.V.L., Kees Waaldijk and Yana van der Meulen Rodgers. 2019. 'The Relationship between LGBT Inclusion and Economic Development: Macro-Level Evidence.' World Development 120: 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.03.011.

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  • Currier, A. 2011. 'Decolonising the Law: LGBT Organising in Namibia and South Africa.' In Social Movements/Legal Possibilities: Special Issue, edited by Austin Sarat. Bingley: Emerald 17–44.

  • Doan, P. 2010. 'Disrupting Gender Normativity in the Middle East: Supporting Gender Transgression as a Development Strategy.' In Development, Sexual Rights and Global Governance, edited by Amy Lind. London, UK and New York, USA: Routledge 145–54.

  • Florida, Richard and Irene Tinagli. 2004. Europe in the Creative Age. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Mellon Software Industry Center.

  • Forced Migration Review. 2013. 'Special Issue ‚Ä' Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity and the Protection of Forced Migrants.' Forced Migration Review 42: 1–64.

  • Grant, J.M., L.A. Mottet and J. Tanis. 2011. Injustice at Every Turn: A Report of the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. Washington, DC: National Center For Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.

  • Hazel, Kelly L. and Kerry S. Kleyman. 2019. 'Gender and Sex Inequalities: Implications and Resistance.' Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community 48 (4): 281–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2019.1627079.

  • ILO. 2021. 'Why Cooperatives for Transgender Community? An ILO Perspective.' https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/cooperatives/news/WCMS_776103/lang--en/index.htm.

  • Jordan, Sharalyn R. 2011. 'Un/Convention(Al) Refugees: Contextualizing the Accounts of Refugees Facing Homophobic or Transphobic Persecution.' Refuge: Canada's Journal on Refugees 26 (2): 165–82. https://doi.org/10.25071/1920-7336.32086.

  • Katyal, S.K. 2005. 'Sexuality and Sovereignty: The Global Limits and Possibilities of Lawrence.' William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 14: 1429–92.

  • Katz-Wise, Sabra L. and Janet S. Hyde. 2012. 'Victimization Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals: A Meta-Analysis.' Journal of Sex Research 49 (2‚Ä'3): 142–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2011.637247.

  • Kumra, Savita and Simonetta Manfredi. 2012. Managing Equality and Diversity: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Otaye-Ebede, Lilian, Samah Shaffakat and Scott Foster. 2020. 'A Multilevel Model Examining the Relationships between Workplace Spirituality, Ethical Climate and Outcomes: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective.' Journal of Business Ethics 166 (3): 611‚Ä'26.

  • Potoczniak, Daniel, Margaret Crosbie-Burnett and Nikki Saltzburg. 2009. 'Experiences Regarding Coming out to Parents among African American, Hispanic, and White Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Adolescents.' Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services 21 (2‚Ä'3): 189–205. https://doi.org/10.1080/10538720902772063.

  • Priola, Vincenza, Diego Lasio, Francesco Serri and Silvia De Simone. 2018. 'The Organisation of Sexuality and the Sexuality of Organisation: A Genealogical Analysis of Sexual "Inclusive Exclusion" at Work.' Organization 25 (6): 732–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508418790140.

  • Priola, Vincenza, Diego Lasio, Silvia De Simone and Francesco Serri. 2014. 'The Sound of Silence. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Discrimination in "Inclusive Organizations".' British Journal of Management 25 (3): 488–502. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12043.

  • Puar, Jasbir K. 2007. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

  • Romero, A.P, S.K. Goldberg and L.A. Vasquez. 2020. LGBT People and Housing Affordability, Discrimination, and Homelessness. Los Angeles, CA: Williams Institute (UCLA).

  • UN Human Rights. 2015. 'UN Free & Equal – the Price of Exclusion.' YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/embed/DvSxLHpyFOk.

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