Open access

The entry explains the role of the social and solidarity economy (SSE) in addressing the problems faced by migrants and refugees, particularly in contexts of austerity and welfare retrenchment, xenophobia and populist politics. It also pays attention to enabling policy and creating an institutional environment for SSE in addressing the problems faced by refugees and migrants, and initiatives developed by refugees and migrants themselves to arrange SSE organizations and enterprises (SSEOEs) in host societies. The entry particularly pays attention to the comparative advantages that SSE has in providing services to migrants and refugees, and introduces three empirical cases.

  • Bakker, Linda, Jaco Dagevos and Godfried Engbersen. 2017. 'Explaining the Refugee Gap: A Longitudinal Study on Labour Market Participation of Refugees in the Netherlands.' Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 43 (11): 1775‚Ä'91. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183x.2016.1251835.

  • Borzaga, Carlo, Luca Fazzi and Giulia Galera. 2016. 'Social Enterprise as a Bottom-Up Dynamic.' International Review of Sociology 26 (1): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/03906701.2016.1148332.

  • Borzaga, Carlo, Gianluca Salvatori and Riccardo Bodini. 2017. 'Social and Solidarity Economy and the Future of Work.' ILO. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_ent/---coop/documents/publication/wcms_573160.pdf.

  • Del Biaggio, Cristina. 2020 'Privatisation de L'Asile: ORS, un Empire "en construction".' Vivre Ensemble: Bulletin de liaison pour la défense du droit d'asile VE 180/Décembre: 24‚Ä'8.

  • European Committee of the Regions. 2020 'Integration of Migrants in Middle and Small Cities and in Rural Areas in Europe.' http://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/library-document/integration-migrants-middle-and-small-cities-and-rural-areas-europe_en.

  • Federico, Veronica and Simone Baglioni. 2021. Migrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers' Integration in European Labour Markets. A Comparative Approach on Legal Barriers and Enablers. IMISCOE Research Series. Cham: Springer.

  • Galera, Giulia. 2010. 'Social Enterprises and the Integration of Disadvantaged Workers.' In The Economics of Social Responsibility. New York: Routledge.

  • Galera, Giulia, Leila Giannetto and Antonella Noya. 2018. 'The Role of Non-State Actors in the Integration of Refugees and Asylum Seekers.' OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Papers 2018/02. https://doi.org/10.1787/434c3303-en.

  • Hayes, Ryan. 2019. 'Worker-Owned Apps Are Trying to Fix the Gig Economy's Exploitation. A Network of Cooperative Alternatives are Replacing Rampant Exploitation.' Vice. https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/cooperatives/publications/WCMS_573160/lang--en/index.htm.

  • Martini, Francesca and Maddalena Bartolini, eds. 2020. La Liguria Duale Dell'accoglienza: Buone Pratiche, OpportunitaÃÄ E Problematiche Tra Aree Rurali E Area Metropolitana Genovese. Genova: Genova University Press.

  • Moore, Michele-Lee, Darcy Riddell and Dana Vocisano. 2015. 'Scaling Out, Scaling Up, Scaling Deep. Strategies of Non-profits in Advancing Systemic Social Innovation.' Journal of Corporate Citizenship 58: 67‚Ä'84. https://doi.org/10.9774/gleaf.4700.2015.ju.00009.

  • Patuzzi, Liam, Meghan Benthon and Alexandra Embiricos. 2019. 'Social Innovation for Refugee Inclusion. From Bright Spots to System Change.' Migration Policy Institute Europe. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/social-innovation-refugee-inclusion-bright-spots-system-change.

  • Perlink, Manfred, Giulia Galera, Ingrid Machold and Andrea Membretti. 2019. Alpine Refugees: Immigration at the Core of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

  • Simsa, Ruth. 2017. 'Emergency Management by Civil Society ‚Ä' the Case of Austria.' International Journal of Emergency Services 11 (4): 78–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/19361610.2017.1228026.

  • Up & Go. 2022. 'Find a Better Home Cleaning Service ‚Ä' Up & Go Cleaners.' https://www.upandgo.coop/.

  • Utting, Peter. 2015. Social and Solidarity Economy: Beyond the Fringe. London: Zed Books.