Chapter 1 Barriers to innovation
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The literature on innovation barriers is expanding from an output approach (barriers affecting innovation outputs) towards an input approach (barriers affecting innovation inputs) (Antonioli, Marzucchi, and Savona 2017; Arza and López 2021; de-Oliveira and Rodil-Marzábal 2019; De Fuentes, Santiago, and Temel 2020; Moraes Silva, Lucas, and Vonortas 2020; Zahler, Goya, and Caama-o 2018). In this short chapter, we sketch this novel understanding that innovation barriers play a moderation role over the effect of innovation determinants on company innovativeness. We first summarize innovation determinants relying on a long stream of literature addressing company propensity to innovate (OECD 2018) and then move into obstacles and policy implications.