Chapter 14 Living and theorizing boundaries of justice
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This chapter elaborates drawing boundaries of justice in Europe by integrating the critical analysis of empirical findings of the ETHOS project as described in the previous chapters with the main theoretical framework inspired by Nancy Fraser’s approach of redistributive, recognitive, and representative justice. The chapter conceptualizes and elaborates on how the drawing boundaries of justice in Europe takes place. It shows that exclusion and inequality are present across the borders of political communities, as well as within them, on the basis of intersecting identities including: ethnicity, religion, gender, age, physical able-ness, and economic position, such as being unemployed, living on social benefits, or working in undervalued sectors (for example, care) and/or on precarious contracts. External boundaries of justice are limited by territorially bounded political communities and manifested in national citizenship. The chapter identifies three major lines of exclusion of non-citizens: 1) territorial affectedness; 2) sedentariness; and 3) national belonging. It also shows that formal belonging is often not sufficient to get included into ‘internal’ scopes of justice due to a paradigm shift towards an ‘austerity society’ in which the responsibility is placed on the individuals. This is manifested in differentiating among individuals by categorizing them as deviating from ‘normalcy’. This amounts to misrecognition of persons that legitimately have different claims and to maldistribution of resources thus undermining participatory parity for all members of society. The chapter concludes that the implementation of the three dimensions of justice is further complicated by the multi-governance structure of the EU, although this need not necessarily be impediment to implementing justice in Europe, provided that there is a political will to do so both at the European and national levels.

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