Chapter 12 Mobility-as-a-Service: how governance is shaping an innovation and its outcomes
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Mobility-as-a-service (MaaS) is an innovation that uses platform technologies for the integrated provision of mobility services through an app at traveler. The potential of the innovation is that shared and public modes will become more attractive. However, the governance of mobility and the subsequent way that MaaS way that it will be implemented will drive the outcomes, with outcomes that could actually be far less positive for the mobility system and society as a whole. The chapter explores that relation between the innovation and its governance and point at the potential of more cooperative and experimental introductions of innovations, with governance and services being recast in a joint effort between existing and new market parties and governmental parties at different levels. It illustrates empirically the various ways in governance is shaping this innovation process is ongoing through three international case studies.