Chapter 4 Civil society studies in Brazil: from third sector to uncivil society?
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Since the middle of the last decade, Brazilian civil society has been going through a degeneration in citizenship achievements, whether in public policies or human rights. The advance of authoritarian forces through legal maneuvers and electoral successes of right-wing populist candidates for both the executive and the legislature creates the conditions for this setback to take place. After the uprising of social movements in Brazil in June 2013, literature analyzed this new form of social mobilization and its connection to social media. However, civil society scholars were negligent in analyzing these insurgent movements or the mobilization of right-wing social movements. The evolution of the civil society academic field was being configured so that attention was almost exclusively paid to traditional nonprofit organizations - equated to 'third sector' organizations in the 1990s - or grassroots associations, the 'positive side' of civil society, leaving aside research on the uncivil elements.