Chapter 9 Access to welfare policies by immigrants: comparing centralized and decentralized governance in the examples of Turkey and Spain
Open access

This chapter reflects on the limits of the welfare state through a comparative perspective in societies with high immigration rates to improve social cohesion. As migrant-receiving Mediterranean welfare states, the centralized governance of Turkey and the decentralized governance of Spain are interesting cases to compare welfare policies designed to facilitate social cohesion. By focusing on three important areas of welfare - social support, healthcare, and education - we elaborate on these two cases’ existing rights and policies. The article highlights the challenges of both countries in the context of the numbers of immigrants and access to the welfare system for the immigrant population, as well as the challenges rural areas face.

  • Aguilar Gil, M., J. M. Bleda Garc'a and C. F. Centelles Garc'a (2019), ‘Los inmigrantes en el sistema sanitario espa-ol: Aspectos participativos y de atenci—n a la salud’, Revista Espa-ola de Salud Pública, 93, 1–12.

  • Ajzenstadt, M. and J. Gal (eds) (2010), Children, Gender and Families in Mediterranean Welfare States, Dordrecht: Springer.

  • Andersen, J. G. and T. Bjørklund (1990), ‘Structural changes and new cleavages: The Progress Parties in Denmark and Norway’, Acta Sociologica, 33 (3), 195–217.

  • Assi, R., S. …zger-_lhan and M. N. _lhan (2019), ‘Health needs and access to health care: The case of Syrian refugees in Turkey’, Public Health, 172, 146–152.

  • Ataç, _. and S. Rosenberger (2018), ‘Social policies as a tool of migration control’, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 17 (1), 1–10, doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2018.1539802.

  • Betts, A., F. Memi_o_lu and A. Ali (2020), ‘What difference do mayors make? The role of municipal authorities in Turkey and Lebanon’s response to Syrian refugees’, Journal of Refugee Studies, 34 (1), 491–519.

  • Blanco Moreno, A. and J. Hernández Pascual (2009), ‘El sistema sanitario y la inmigraci—n en Espa-a desde la perspectiva de la pol'tica fiscal’, Gaceta Sanitaria, 23 (1), 25–28.

  • Bu_ra, A. and Ç. Keyder (2006), ‘The Turkish welfare regime in transformation’, Journal of European Social Policy, 16 (3), 211–228.

  • Burgoon, B. and M. Rooduijn, M. (2021), ‘“Immigrationization” of welfare politics? Anti-immigration and welfare attitudes in context’, West European Politics, 44 (2), 177–203.

  • Cantarero Prieto, D. (2010), ‘Desigualdades territoriales y equidad en el sistema sanitario espa-ol’, Cuadernos Econ—micos de Ice, 75, 141–166.

  • Careja, R. and E. Harris (2022), ‘Thirty years of welfare chauvinism research: Findings and challenges’, Journal of European Social Policy, 32 (2), 212–224.

  • Cea D’Ancona, M. A. (2015), ‘Los efectos de la crisis econ—mica en la molduraci—n y evoluci—n de la opini—n pública espa-ola ante la inmigraci—n’, Migraciones, 37, 29–52.

  • CEAR (2021), ‘Las personas refugiadas en Espa-a y Europa’, Report 21, Comisi—n Espa-ola de Ayuda al Refugiado (CEAR).

  • Cinpoe_, R. and O. C. Norocel (2020), ‘Nostalgic nationalism, welfare chauvinism, and migration anxieties in central and Eastern Europe’, in O. C. Norocel, A. Hellström and M. Bak Jørgensen (eds), Nostalgia and Hope: Intersections between Politics of Culture, Welfare, and Migration in Europe, Cham: Springer, pp. 51–65.

  • Co_kun, G. B. C. and A. Y. Uçar (2018), ‘Local responses to the Syrian refugee movement’, Movements, 4 (2), 103–246.

  • ERG (2017), Education Monitoring Report 2016–17, accessed 15 October 2020 at http://en.egitimreformugirisimi.org/education-monitoring-report-2016-17/.

  • Gal, J. (2010), ‘Is there an extended family of Mediterranean welfare states?’, Journal of European Social Policy, 20 (4), 283–300.

  • Geddes, A. (2003), ‘Migration and the welfare state in Europe’, The Political Quarterly, 74 (1), 150–162.

  • Godenau, D., S. Rinken, A. Mart'nez de Lizarrondo and G. Moreno (2014), ‘La integraci—n de los inmigrantes en Espa-a: una propuesta de medici—n a escala regional’ Documentos del Observatorio, 30, Madrid: Observatorio Permanente de la Inmigraci—n, Ministerio de Empleo y Seguridad Social.

  • González Enr'quez, C. and S. Rinken (2021), ‘La opini—n pública ante la inmigraci—n y el efecto de VOX’, Análisis del Real Instituto Elcano, 33, 1–10.

  • Grau Rubio, C. and M. Fernández Hawrilak (2016), ‘La educaci—n del alumnado inmigrante en Espa-a’, ARXIUS. Arxius de Ciències Socials, 34, 141–156.

  • Instituto Nacional de Estad'stica (INE) (2022), ‘Municipal Register of Inhabitants’, accessed at https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/categoria.htm?c=Estadistica_P&cid=1254734710990.

  • IOM (2022), MPM Turkey Migrants’ Presence Monitoring, Situation Report, March 2022, accessed 21 April 2022 at https://displacement.iom.int/sites/default/files/public/reports/Turkey_Sitrep_03_March_22.pdf.

  • Kale, B. and M. Erdo_an (2019), ‘The Impact of GCR on local governments and Syrian refugees in Turkey’, International Migration, 57 (6), 224–242.

  • Kaya, A. and A. Kıraç (2016), Vulnerability Assessment of Syrians in Istanbul, Istanbul: Support to Life Association.

  • Keskinen, S., O. C. Norocel and M. B. Jørgensen (2016), ‘The politics and policies of welfare chauvinism under the economic crisis’, Critical Social Policy, 36 (3), 321–329.

  • Laine, J. P. (2020a), ‘Reframing African migration to Europe: An alternative narrative’, in I. Moyo, C. C. Nshimbi and J. P. Laine (eds), Migration Conundrums, Regional Integration and Development: Africa-Europe Relations in a Changing Global Order, London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 93–116.

  • Laine, J. P. (2020b), ‘Safe European Home – Where Did You Go? On Immigration, B/ordered Self and The Territorial Home’, in J. P. Laine, I. Moyo and C. C. Nshimbi (eds) Expanding Boundaries: Borders, Mobilities and the Future of Europe-Africa Relations, London: Routledge, pp. 216–236.

  • Laine, J. P. (2021), ‘Beyond borders: Towards the ethics of unbounded inclusiveness’, Journal of Borderlands Studies, 36 (5), 745–763, doi.org/10.1080/08865655.2021.1924073.

  • Mardin, D. (2017), Right to Health and Access to Health Services for Syrian Refugees in Turkey, MiReKoc Policy Brief 2017/01, accessed 10 January 2021 at https://mirekoc.ku.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/PB_Right-to-Health.pdf.

  • Mart'nez de Lizarrondo, A. (2009), Los procesos de gesti—n y evaluaci—n de las pol'ticas de integraci—n de inmigrantes en las comunidades aut—nomas, Madrid: Instituto Nacional de Administraci—n Pública (INAP), Gesti—n y Análisis de Pol'ticas Públicas.

  • Mau, S. and C. Burkhardt, C. (2009), Migration and welfare state solidarity in Western Europe, Journal of European Social Policy, 19 (3), 213–229.

  • McCarthy, A. T. (2018), ‘Politics of refugee education: Educational administration of the Syrian refugee crisis in Turkey’, Journal of Educational Administration and History, 50 (3), 223–238.

  • Moreno Fuentes, F. J. (2007), ‘Inmigraci—n y Estado de Bienestar en Espa-a’, Pol'tica y Sociedad, 44 (2), 171–184.

  • Moreno Fuentes, F. J. and M. Bruquetas Calleja (2012), ‘Las pol'ticas sociales y la integraci—n de la poblaci—n de origen inmigrante en Espa-a’, Anuario CIDOB de la Inmigraci—n, 158–186.

  • Moreno Fuentes, F. J. and S. De Figueiredo Ferreira (2013), ‘Inmigraci—n, sanidad, crisis econ—mica y politizaci—n de la inmigraci—n en Espa-a’, REMHU – Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana, Bras'lia, 21 (40), 27–47.

  • Moreno-Colom, S. and R. De Alòs (2016), ‘La inmigraci—n en Espa-a: ¿una integraci—n con pies de barro?’, Pol'tica y Sociedad, 53 (2), 509–528.

  • MUDEM (2020), COVID-19 Krizi Sürecinde Türkiye’deki Mültecilerin Durum Analizi, Refugee Support Center.

  • MÜLTEC_-DER (2019), Joint Assessment: Proposed Amendments in the Law on

  • Foreigners and International Protection of Turkey, accessed 3 April 2022 at www

  • .multeci.org.tr/en/haberler/english-joint-assessment-proposed-amendments-in-the-

  • law-on-foreigners-and-international-protection-of-turkey/.

  • Murillo, F. J. and G. Belavi (2018), ‘Segregaci—n escolar de estudiantes inmigrantes pobres en Espa-a’, Scripta Nova, Revista Electr—nica de Geograf'a y Ciencias Sociales, XXII (603), 1–27.

  • …zçürümez, S. and A. _çduygu (2020), Zorunlu Göç Deneyimi ve Toplumsal Bütünle_me: Kavramlar, Modeller Ve Uygulamalar _le Türkiye, _stanbul: _stanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi.

  • …zkul, D. (2020), ‘Covid-19 Salgını Süreci ve Sonrası için Düzensiz Göçmen, Sı_ınmacı ve Mültecilere Yönelik Politika …nerileri’, IstanPol, No. 14.

  • Pérez Yruela, M. and S. Rinken (2005), La integraci—n de los inmigrantes en la sociedad andaluza, Madrid: CSIC.

  • PMM, Presidency of Migration Management (2022), accessed 21 April 2022 at https://en.goc.gov.tr/.

  • Price, J. and S. Spencer (2015), ‘Safeguarding Children from Destitution: Local Authority Responses to Families with “No Recourse to Public Funds’”, COMPAS, Oxford: University of Oxford.

  • Refugees Association, Number of Syrians in Turkey, accessed 21 April 2022 at https://multeciler.org.tr/eng/number-of-syrians-in-turkey/.

  • Ribas-Mateos, N. (2017), The Mediterranean in the Age of Globalization: Migration, Welfare, and Borders, London: Routledge.

  • Sciortino, G. (2004), ‘Immigration in a Mediterranean welfare state: The Italian experience in comparative perspective’, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 6 (2), 111–129.

  • Sevinin, E. (2020), Barriers to and Facilitators of Migrant Communities’ Access to Health Care in Istanbul, Göç Ara_tırmaları Derne_i (GAR), accessed 10 January 2021 at https://gocarastirmalaridernegi.org/attachments/article/184/GAR_MSF_

  • health.pdf.

  • SIHHAT, accessed 3 April 2022 at https://eng.sihhatproject.org/.

  • Soroka, S. N., R. Johnston, A. Kevins, K. Banting and W. Kymlicka (2016), ‘Migration and welfare state spending’, European Political Science Review, 8 (2), 173–194.

  • Sunata, U. and A. Abdulla (2020), ‘Lessons from experiences of Syrian civil society in refugee education of Turkey’, Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 18 (4), 434–447.

  • Temel, K. and U. Tüfekçi (2018), Türkiye’de Göçmen ve Mültecilere Yönelik Sosyal Yardım Politikasında Yapısal Dönü_üm, I. Uluslararası Göç ve Mülteci Kongresi Bildirileri, Düzce Üniversitesi Yayınları, 5, 83–100.

  • UNICEF (2019), Education of Children Under Temporary Protection in Turkey: Statistical Report, accessed 10 January 2021 at https://www.unicef.org/turkey/en/reports/education-children-under-temporary-protection-turkey-statistical-report.

  • UNICEF (2020), Turkey Humanitarian Situation Report, No. 40, accessed 25 January

  • 2022 at https://www.unicef.org/media/92411/file/UNICEF-Turkey-Humanitarian

  • -Situation-Report-No.-40-(Syrian-Refugees-Response-)-January-December-2020.

  • pdf.

  • Unutulmaz, K. O. (2018), ‘Turkey’s education policies towards Syrian refugees: A macro-level analysis’, International Migration, 57 (2), 235–251.

  • Uyan Semerci, P. and E. Erdo_an (2016), ‘Guests to neighbours: The difficulty of naming Syrians in Turkey’, Refugee Watch, 48, 20–34.

  • Van der Leun, J. (2006), ‘Excluding illegal migrants in The Netherlands: Between national policies and local implementation’, West European Politics, 29 (2), 310–326.

  • Yıldırım, C.A., A. Komsuoglu and _. …zekmekçi (2019), ‘The transformation of the primary health care system for Syrian refugees in Turkey’, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 28 (1), 75–96.

  • Yilmaz, V. (2019), ‘The emerging welfare mix for Syrian refugees in Turkey: The interplay between humanitarian assistance programmes and the Turkish welfare system’, Journal of Social Policy, 48 (4), 721–739.