In this final chapter, we give an overview of how welfare states can contribute to the transition to low-emissions and sustainable societies. We draw together the main findings of the data analysed in the book: comparative opinion surveys, qualitative case-studies in four countries, and institutional data about European-level policy developments. Based on macro-level quantitative indicators we explore and compare how well-prepared Germany, Italy, Norway and the United Kingdom are for making the eco-social transition. A key issue is how to achieve an effective coordination of the ecological, social, and economic dimensions of sustainability to promote a welfare state that embraces rather than contradicts environmental considerations. Finally, we point to emerging questions for future research, centred on (i) the prospects for accomplishing fair transitions to zero or low emissions societies and (ii) the preparedness of governments to use the tools of instruments of their welfare states for enabling these transitions.