Chapter 3 Questionnaire design
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Good practices for questionnaire design vary by survey method, with differences for ‘heard’ questionnaires (telephone or face-to-face interviews) and self-administered questionnaires that are read by respondents, either on paper or on a device such as a desktop/laptop, tablet, or smartphone. The chapter discusses differences in the compatibility of results by survey method and the use of combined survey methods to maximize response rates. The chapter explains how to meet multiple goals for all questionnaires, including how to keep questionnaires short, how to write simple and clear questions that can be understood as intended by all respondents, how to minimize undesirable response behaviour and maximize survey and item response rates, appropriate measurement levels for addressing the research questions. and how to avoid common methods bias. A key goal is to ensure that the questionnaire contains no more questions than needed nor omits any necessary questions to answer research questions.