Chapter 1 Conceptual expansions: the meaning of democracy beyond the state
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The chapter widens the concept of democracy to apply in descriptions of global and international politics. It exposes problematic and ill-founded assumptions in conceptions of democracy that dominate in political science and limit research on democracy to domestic politics. It argues for the possibility to realise and to study democracy in the everyday life of individual human beings (not only in formal political procedures); in border-crossing practices (not only within territorial borders that exist beforehand); in the exercise of constituent powers that establish states and borders (not only in the exercise of powers that are constitutionally regulated or delimited already); and in the shaping of human life practices (not only in the making of binding decisions). These conceptual openings situates democracy in political beyond the state, and allows it to exist and be studied under conditions of anarchy and border-transcendence as theorized in IR.

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