Chapter 3 Democracys independent effects: from domestic to international theory
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The chapter develops a theory to explain why democracy beyond the state influence the outcomes of global and international politics independently of other factors. It illustrates causal mechanisms and background conditions to explain why variation in democracy beyond the state makes a difference for three general features in politics, namely the composition of interests, the epistemic qualities, and the policy preferences reflecting in political outcomes, ranging from binding decisions to social life practices. Defending these claims in theory, and illustrating their role as mechanisms in longer causal chains that include issues like peace and war and resources distribution, the chapter casts new light on unresolved problems in IR theory. It contributes to explaining the international influence of individual persons, discussions of post-truth and fake-news, and endogenous actors preference in research that does not sacrifice empirical testing capacity.

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