Chapter 4 Democracys complex effects: subsuming international theories
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The chapter develops democratism to overcome empirical anomalies and to subsume theoretical controversies in current IR. It advances scope conditions to improve on existing explanations in liberalism, realism, constructivism, and Marxism. It argues that democracy beyond the state conditions the effects of anarchy, of legitimacy, of social recognition, and of power transitions in global and international politics, in ways that correct existing predictions of their effects on foreign policy strategies, institutional effectiveness, peace and conflict, and international security, respectively. The chapter thus posits democratism as a theory to explain whether anarchy leads states to balancing or to bandwagon, whether social recognition leads to peace or sustained enmity, whether legitimacy makes international institutions more effective to promote public goods or to protect the vested interests of dominating groups, and whether international power shifts result in political tension or can be accommodated within a peaceful international order.

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