Chapter 9 Political influence in global governance
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The chapter tests the key assumptions in democratism on the political influence of international actors. Democratism argues that political influence stems from representation or participation in decision-making of individual persons or theory groups or parties. It rejects assumptions that influence over outcomes even in global and international politics are always limited to governments, owners of capital, culturally privileged sexes and ethnicities, or other groups empowered beyond the average level by some political structures. The chapter tests these claims in a study of political influence among civil society organisations who engage in policy-making with the United Nations, the African Union, the Council of Europe, the Organisation of the American States, and the United Nations Environmental Program. The results support the assumptions in democratism and rejects the contrary assumptions that influence is limited to particular actor types. Political influence is not limited to actors who are empowered by pre-political structures, but proceeds from engagement by individuals or their groups in political practice.

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