This chapter introduces the main aims and themes of the book. It desires to better understand why the more economically liberal a country becomes the greater its reliance on political authoritarianism seems to be across contexts. It asks what are the underlying dynamics driving this diverse “authoritarian capitalism” in the twenty-first century? How to explain the rise of authoritarian capitalism in the age of globalization? What does this reveal about the more fundamental relationship between political authoritarianism and economic capitalism? To answer this question it links the contemporary global spread of the free market to affective authoritarian political fantasies.