The existing data regarding gender and innovation show that women are less likely to carry out technologically based product and process innovations than men. This chapter presents some empirical evidence for Germany and proposes several conceptual explanations for these findings. With this, the chapter contributes to explaining gender-dependent differences regarding innovative behaviour based on the different contextual factors that foster and perpetuate, for example, traditional role expectations. These role expectations – among other aspects of the institutional framework (in particular with regard to tax and family policies) – have an impact on the development of various individual preferences regarding educational and professional choices and vice versa. Based on the authors’ exploratory evidence, the chapter concludes that women are not less innovative as such but that a combination of institutional constraints and traditional role models contributes to them self-selecting into female-typed professions and working structures, such as part-time work.