Ageism and age discrimination lie at the root of many human rights violations faced by older persons worldwide. Addressing these issues is thus essential in ensuring the effective protection of older persons’ rights. This chapter therefore explores the link between ageism, age discrimination and the rights of older persons at a practical level. The chapter then identifies the position and recognition of ageism in international policy documents and human rights instruments, as well as within ongoing negotiations on a new international binding treaty that would focus on older persons. It thus aims to demonstrate the lack of attention for this phenomenon that negatively affects older persons, and to provide recommendations on how to strengthen an anti-ageist approach in a potential new UN convention on older persons’ rights.