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Laurel D. Edmunds

While medicine is attracting women and men equally at undergraduate level, academic medicine remains dominated by a masculine ethos. Although numbers of women are gradually increasing, many women remain in the lower ranks. The culture of academic medicine may share characteristics with other science and business environments, so by considering the research looking at women’s perspectives on working in this field, light may be shed on why women enter, remain in or leave such cultures. This chapter explores the attractions, or discouragements, and some of the psychological perspectives of how women regard the culture and how the culture regards them once they are in post.

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Helen Lawton Smith, Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen and Laurel Edmunds

While investments in certain places yield jobs, growth and prosperity similar investments in others locations fail to produce the desired effects (Feldman, 2014). As an outcome of governmental policies to foster innovation in companies in the healthcare sector, both research and innovation are clustered in particular places (Cooke 2013) as it is often research universities that are central players in research and research-led innovation that have societal value in the healthcare sector, funded both by public funds as well as by the private sector (Arbo and Benneworth 2007, Bagchi-Sen and Lawton Smith 2010). Our case study draws on data from three key bioscience regions along with an emerging region. The chapter focuses specifically on the extent of the role of Oxford University in driving the healthcare cluster development over time while considering the role of other organisations (local and national) and local context specific factors.