This chapter discusses the relationship between the United Nations (UN) system and the private sector against the background of responsible management practices. The first part analyzes the relationship between the UN and private enterprises from a historical perspective, starting from the 1970s until today. The second part introduces the UN’s flagship initiative for responsible management: the United Nations Global Compact. It reviews the underlying rationale of the initiative as well as its governance framework and perceived legitimacy. The third section discusses the move from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and shows that the SDGs are better aligned with responsible management concerns due to their more explicit emphasis on partnerships and their recognition that social, environmental and economic problems are interconnected. The final section outlines a research agenda that emphasizes areas of scholarly activity related to the UNGC and the SDGs that have so far been neglected.