The terms city-region and city-regionalism are today widely used by urban managers, planners, representatives of businesses associations and international organizations, real estate and property developers and state officials and politicians. These terms disclose the complex intertwining of contemporary urbanization, world economy and world politics. In this chapter we first review the economic geographical literature on city-regionalism. Second, we interrogate city regionalism as a set of political-administrative and/or geopolitical processes in more detail. We suggest that city-regions should not be understood as discrete spatial units that operate as ‘agents’ or ‘actor-scales’ in themselves. Nor should city-regions be considered as passive backdrops on which economy, politics or social reproduction simply happen. Rather city-regions may be conceptualized as dynamic sites of policy experimentation and political struggle, which are produced from various political processes operating within and around the national state and its institutions.
Sami Moisio, Juho Luukkonen and Andrew E.G. Jonas
This chapter elaborates upon political geographies of globalization. By this we refer to the different political discourses and related imaginaries, policy practices and regimes of governance through which globalization can be understood as being constantly produced in and through political geographical formations. We comprehend globalization both as an actually existing process which links places – cities, regions, etc., institutions (especially the state) and people (notably workers) – and creates interdependencies between them, and as a politically loaded rhetorical device used to rationalize and legitimate political decisions and policy practices. We single out three interlinked and partly overlapping issues through which the political geographies of globalization can be mapped out: the spatial formations of globalization and the state, the ‘globalizing’ role and ‘globalized’ nature of public policy, and the globalizing regimes and policies of labour.