This chapter describes the current regulation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) in Australia. Australian federal, state, and territory governments have applied highly restrictive regulations to this category of products. ENDS that are supplied, possessed, or used for therapeutic purposes are classified as a prescription-only medicine and regulated by federal therapeutic goods regulations but no such products have yet been approved as medicines, and few options exist for legally accessing unapproved medicines. Nontherapeutic ENDS are classified under most regulations as dangerous poisons and require authorization for their supply, possession, or use. Most Australian ENDS users thus import and use nicotine-containing products illegally. The chapter also discusses regulatory actions in Australia against ENDS suppliers and users, and failed attempts to liberalize the regulation of ENDS.