Richard Sharpley and David Harrison
Tourism has long been recognized as a potentially effective catalyst of development, not least because of its remarkable significance as a global economic sector. It is not surprising, therefore, that academic attention has long been paid to the relationship between tourism and development, specifically to the policies and processes that may optimize tourism’s developmental potential. However, both tourism and the global developmental context in which it occurs are dynamic; new opportunities emerge, as do new challenges. There is, therefore, a need for an agenda for research in tourism and development. This chapter introduces such an agenda. Following a critical review of the alleged benefits of tourism as an agent of development, it explores contemporary perspectives on development and conceptual approaches to understanding the tourism-development relationship (and knowledge gaps) before going on to introduce the chapters that comprise this book.
David Harrison and Stephen Pratt
There is a long-held belief that tourism can be a passport to development and can also alleviate poverty. Although international tourism has grown markedly since the 1950s, the promised benefits of tourism and its potential to reduce poverty has come under question. This chapter reviews the definitions of poverty, noting both absolute and relative measurements; single indices and multidimensional criteria. The chapter then assesses, from a macroeconomic perspective, the extent to which tourism can contribute to poverty reduction. The overwhelming conclusion is that tourism can indeed improve the lives of residents of destination areas but that equality may have to be sacrificed for growth. Who benefits from tourism depends on the type of tourism involved, the prevailing wider environment at the destination and the ability and commitment of governments to extend tourism’s benefits as widely as possible. Lastly, the chapter discusses the mechanisms of how poverty can be alleviated through tourism. Directions of future research are suggested.
Edited by Richard Sharpley and David Harrison
Rachel Harrison and David Grant
Insolvency of natural persons, or individual insolvency, is called ‘bankruptcy’ in England and Wales. Both corporate insolvency and personal insolvency are governed by the Insolvency Act 1986 and the Insolvency Rules 2016. As well as bankruptcy, there are other options for debtors who do not wish to become bankrupt. These involve paying off debts in instalments through the establishment of a Debt Management Plan, an Administration Order, or an Individual Voluntary Arrangement. If repayment is not a viable option for the debtor, he can apply for a Debt Relief Order or a Bankruptcy Order. The debtor’s choice will take several factors into account, chiefly the extent and nature of his debt, and his disposable income and assets. English law is perceived as one of the most ‘debtor-friendly’ systems among EU Member States due to its breadth of applicability, relative simplicity and automatic discharge.