This chapter focuses on individual employee exercise of voice, both informally and formally, through two internal channels, namely, unionized and non-union grievance procedures. Unionized grievance procedures are long-standing, and substantial empirical research shows that they are regularly and frequently used by unionized employees. By contrast, the emergence and growth of non-union grievance procedures is a relatively recent development. While most industrial relations scholars expected that these non-union procedures would be meagerly used by non-union employees, empirical evidence indicates that they are in fact quite widely used by non-union employees, though to a somewhat lesser extent than by unionized employees. The specific institutional arrangements - mechanisms - through which unionized and non-union employee exercise voice are closely examined in this chapter. This is followed by analysis of the actual use of such mechanisms by unionized and non-union employees. Attention then turns to the consequences of employee use of voice or, in other words, post-employment dispute resolution outcomes; in particular, job performance, job promotion and retention/turnover. The chapter concludes with recommendations for new research on individual employee exercise of voice.
David Lewin and David J. Teece
Economics-based approaches to understanding the firm-specificity of strategic human capital, such as the “isolating mechanisms” perspective, require simplifying assumptions about firms. This chapter places the management of human capital resources in a system-level strategic framework. We begin by opening the black box of employee motivation and discuss models, such as expectancy theory, for increasing employee engagement. We then examine how specific bundles of mutually reinforcing HR practices that have been widely studied can lead to a positive organizational climate and strong business performance. HR practices should differ, however, for knowledge-based and task-based work. HR practices should also be closely aligned with the firm’s strategic business processes. We show how the dynamic capabilities framework helps identify which HR alignments need to be prioritized. The combination of a company’s strong organizational capabilities, relevant and flexible strategic human capital resources, and astute management can create unique value and long-term advantage.
Seung-Hyeob Lee and David Lewin
This chapter analyzes the diverse institutional arrangements of public sector employment relations in Korea – in particular, unionization, bargaining structure, and key issues. Korean labor has little voice despite the government changing hands multiple times. A look at the status of the Korean Teachers and Education Workers Union (KTU) and the Korean Government Employees’ Union (KGEU) demonstrate the difficulties public sector unions face in claiming their share of voice within a two-tier bargaining system. Public sector workers, employees and unions have largely been silenced by the unilateral institutionalization of restrictive laws and practices like the registration approval system and prohibitions on collective action for teachers and civil servants. The author argues that to take their place at the table, public sector organizations must learn how to acknowledge economic realities and court public opinion in their strategies and tactics.