Bond finance plays an increasingly important role in debates about financial development, if not economic development more broadly. In this chapter, we first situate bond finance vis-à-vis other financing techniques. We will then provide a brief overview of the historical evolution of bond finance and how this has in turn informed the research field. In the section thereafter, we discuss challenges with measuring bond market development. The final section looks at two new and emerging areas of bond finance research of particular importance to low- and middle-income countries, namely, attempts to develop a regional bond market in Asia and the emergence of sukuk, bond-like financial instruments that seek to comply with Islamic principles.